Intensive Titan Exploration Begins

  title={Intensive Titan Exploration Begins},
  author={Paul R. Mahaffy},
  pages={969 - 970}
The Cassini Orbiter spacecraft first skimmed through the tenuous upper atmosphere of Titan on 26 October 2004. This moon of Saturn is unique in our solar system, with a dense nitrogen atmosphere that is cold enough in places to rain methane, the feedstock for the atmospheric chemistry that produces hydrocarbons, nitrile compounds, and Titan's orange haze. The data returned from this flyby supply new information on the magnetic field and plasma environment around Titan, expose new facets of the… Expand
Titan observations by the Cassini Orbiter
Because Titan orbits a planet, it is officially a satellite. But it resembles a planet itself in some fascinating ways. Its size, for one thing: Titan is bigger than the planet Mercury. And it has anExpand
Observations by the Visual Infrared Spectrometer instrument (VIMS) aboard the Cassini mission have indicated the possible presence of CO 2 ice on the surface on Titan, in areas which exhibit highExpand
The direct simulation of acoustics on Earth, Mars, and Titan.
DSMC results at a variety of altitudes on Earth, Mars, and Titan including the details of nonlinearity, absorption, dispersion, and molecular relaxation in gas mixtures are given. Expand
Structure of Titan's low altitude ionized layer from the Relaxation Probe onboard HUYGENS
Some of the secrets of the atmosphere of Titan have been unveiled by the Huygens Probe. The Permitivity Wave and Altimetry system detected a hidden ionosphere much below the main ionosphere, thatExpand
Astrophysics in 2005
We bring you, as usual, the Sun and Moon and stars, plus some galaxies and a new section on astrobiology. Some highlights are short (the newly identified class of gamma-ray bursts, and the DeepExpand
Titan's atmospheric chemistry: Photolysis of gas mixtures containing hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide at 185 and 254 nm
Abstract The formation of organic compounds in the atmosphere of Titan is an ongoing process of the generation of complex organics from the simplest hydrocarbon, methane. Solar radiation andExpand
Modeling ammonia–ammonium aqueous chemistries in the Solar System’s icy bodies
Abstract The properties of ammonia and ammonium compounds in cold, subsurface brines are important for understanding the behavior of outer planet icy moons. The FREZCHEM model of aqueous chemistryExpand
Evaluation of miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration: From aromatics to amino acids
Abstract Organic molecules are currently believed to be abundant in space, but the possible biogenic origin, or the mere existence, on some planetary surfaces, Mars specifically, is a pendingExpand
The relative cross section and kinetic energy distribution of dissociation processes of methane by electron impact
Electron-impact ionization and dissociation of methane (CH4) has been experimentally studied with a cold target recoil-ion momentum spectrometer. We report data for the formation of CHn+ (n = 0 ~ 3)Expand
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece
Dykes or small stocks of plagiogranitic rocL· occur below the extrusive sequence and in mutually interpenetrating association with the sheeted dyke complex of the Evros Ophiolite, NE Greece. They areExpand


Touring the saturnian system: the atmospheres of titan and saturn
This report follows the presentation originally given in the ESA Phase A Study for the Cassini Huygens Mission. The combination of the Huygens atmospheric probe into Titan's atmosphere with theExpand
Cassini Measurements of Cold Plasma in the Ionosphere of Titan
The Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) Langmuir probe (LP) sensor observed the cold plasma environment around Titan during the first two flybys. The data show that conditions in Saturn'sExpand
The Cassini UVIS Stellar Probe of the Titan Atmosphere
The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) observed the extinction of photons from two stars by the atmosphere of Titan during the Titan flyby to determine the asymptotic kinetic temperature at the top of the atmosphere. Expand
Energetic Neutral Atom Emissions from Titan Interaction with Saturn's Magnetosphere
The Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) observed the interaction of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, with Saturn's magnetosphere during two close flybys of Titan on 26 October and 13Expand
Titan's Atmospheric Temperatures, Winds, and Composition
Early Cassini infrared observations of Titan show a stratopause at an altitude of 310 kilometers (and 186 kelvin at 15°S), and the concentrations of several stratospheric organic compounds are enhanced at mid- and high northern latitudes, and the strong zonal winds may inhibit mixing between these latitudes and the rest of Titan. Expand
Cassini Radar Views the Surface of Titan
The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper imaged about 1% of Titan's surface at a resolution of ∼0.5 kilometer, and larger areas of the globe in lower resolution modes. The images reveal a complex surface, withExpand
Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Results from the First Flyby of Titan
The Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has obtained the first in situ composition measurements of the neutral densities of molecular nitrogen, methane, molecular hydrogen, argon, and a hostExpand
Titan's Magnetic Field Signature During the First Cassini Encounter
The magnetic field signature obtained by Cassini during its first close encounter with Titan on 26 October 2004 is presented and explained in terms of an advanced model. Titan was inside theExpand
Galileo magnetometer measurements: a stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa.
The Galileo magnetometer measured changes in the magnetic field predicted if a current-carrying outer shell, such as a planet-scale liquid ocean, is present beneath the icy surface of Europa. Expand
Touring the Saturnian System
A sample tour is presented illustrating the application of tour design strategies developed for Cassini, to meet the requirements of the Cassini mission. Expand