Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments.

@article{Nisbett2012IntelligenceNF,
  title={Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments.},
  author={Richard E. Nisbett and Joshua Aronson and Clancy B Blair and William T. Dickens and James Robert Flynn and Diane F. Halpern and Eric Turkheimer},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  year={2012},
  volume={67 2},
  pages={
          130-59
        }
}
We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) "Crystallized" and "fluid" IQ are quite different aspects of intelligence at both the behavioral and… 
Current practices and future directions for the assessment of child and adolescent intelligence in schools around the world
According to contemporary theory, intelligence is defined as the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, and to engage in various forms
Socioeconomic status and genetic influences on cognitive development
TLDR
The largest, most population-diverse consideration of the hypothesis that genetic influences on cognitive abilities are larger for children raised in more advantaged environments in Florida found no evidence of SES moderation of genetic influence on test scores, suggesting that articulating gene-environment interactions for cognition is more complex and elusive than previously supposed.
Changing relations among cognitive abilities across development: implications for measurement and research
TLDR
Variables highly associated with age (such as intellectual ability and EF) should not be statistically controlled when assessing cognitive constructs especially in child samples when there is rapid change in cognitive abilities.
Genetic variation, brain, and intelligence differences
TLDR
The last 10 years or so of molecular genetic (DNA-based) research on intelligence is reviewed, including the discovery of genetic loci associated with intelligence, DNA-based heritability, and intelligence’s genetic correlations with other traits.
Does IQ Really Predict Job Performance?
TLDR
It is concluded that considerable caution needs to be exercised in citing correlations of around 0.5 as evidence of test validity, and as justification for the use of the tests in developmental studies, in educational and occupational selection and in research programs on sources of individual differences.
Neurocognitive, Biological and Genetics factors and the Risk of Developing Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF) Disease among Kurdish Societies
Differences in intelligence are the most significant factor in explaining levels of social progress and development. One measure scientists use to determine differences in intelligence is
One Century of Global IQ Gains
  • J. PietschnigM. Voracek
  • Psychology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2015
TLDR
Findings include that IQ gains vary according to domain, are stronger for adults than children, and have decreased in more recent decades, while factors associated with life history speed seem mainly responsible for the Flynn effect’s general trajectory.
Effect of environmental factors on intelligence quotient of children
TLDR
It was found that various environmental factors such as place of residence, physical exercise, family income, parents' occupation and education influence the IQ of a child to a great extent.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 440 REFERENCES
Family configuration and intelligence.
An attempt is made to show generally that variations in aggregate intelligence scores are closely associated with variations in patterns of family configuration and that these aggregate family
Verbal and nonverbal intelligence changes in the teenage brain
TLDR
It is shown that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure.
Pervasiveness of the IQ Rise: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis
TLDR
This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe.
The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood
TLDR
It is shown for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age, and this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years.
The Totality of Available Evidence Shows the Race IQ Gap Still Remains
TLDR
Evidence is reviewed that the distribution of IQ scores around the world shows averages of 106 for East Asians, 100 for Whites, 85 for U.S. Blacks, and 70 for sub-Saharan Africans; and race differences are most pronounced on the more g-loaded subtests whose scores show the most heritability.
Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development.
TLDR
The results unambiguously point to schooling as the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age and to the larger effect schooling has on verbal than nonverbal tests.
What is intelligence ? Beyond the Flynn effect
Around their 18th birthday, basically all Dutch males born between 1934 and 1964 unknowingly took part in a study of the malleability of intelligence. When these young men appeared before the Dutch
Longitudinal models of developmental dynamics between reading and cognition from childhood to adolescence.
TLDR
The results of these analyses indicate that there is a positive dynamic relation between reading and cognition across the selected age range and this dynamic relation is symbiotic, with positive influences in both directions.
Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure.
Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian
...
...