Intelligence: Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism

  title={Intelligence: Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism},
  author={Toshiyuki Nakagaki and Hiroyasu Yamada and {\'A}gota T{\'o}th},
The plasmodium of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large amoeba-like cell consisting of a dendritic network of tube-like structures (pseudopodia). It changes its shape as it crawls over a plain agar gel and, if food is placed at two different points, it will put out pseudopodia that connect the two food sources. Here we show that this simple organism has the ability to find the minimum-length solution between two points in a labyrinth. 
Path finding by tube morphogenesis in an amoeboid organism.
This work has studied how the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a large amoeboid cell, is able to track the shortest path between two selected points in a labyrinth through a simple cellular mechanism based on interacting cellular rhythms. Expand
Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinth.
  • T. Nakagaki
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Research in microbiology
  • 2001
Information processing in the microorganism is discussed to focus on the issue as to whether the maze-solving behavior is akin to primitive intelligence. Expand
Searching strategy of slime mold and its mathematical model
  • Kentaro Ito, R. Kobayashi
  • Computer Science
  • 2017 56th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan (SICE)
  • 2017
It is found that slime mold can change the searching strategy by observing the slime mold in the branching lanes and a mathematical model of physarum expanding is made to explain this behavior. Expand
An associative learning experiment using the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a unicellular and multinuclear giant amoeba that shows adaptive behaviors, seemed to acquire a reversed thermotactic property, a new preference for the lower temperature. Expand
Multi-scaled adaptability in motility and pattern formation of the Physarum plasmodium
How the plasmodium generates new motility and morphology is investigated, and it is found that there are allometric relationships between the cell volume and morphology, and between cell size and cell motility. Expand
Fast shortest path optimization inspired by shuttle streaming of Physarum polycephalum
This work has proposed mathematical models to mimic the intelligent foraging behavior that can be used to find the shortest path between two points of a graph and found that the convergence of the proposed two versions, Physarum Optimization with Shuttle Streaming and POSS with mutation, are 40-11650 times faster when compared with the currently availablephysarum Solver method. Expand
Milestone V
The plasmodium Physarum polycephalum is a large unicellular,multinuclear amoeba-like slime mold that forms a network of tubes through which nutrients and chemical signals flow [2,3]. It spreads outExpand
Adaptive Path-Finding and Transport Network Formation by the Amoeba-Like Organism Physarum
Some factors that can affect path-finding through networks are reported here to help understand more generally how the organism tries to establish an optimal set of paths in more complex environments and how this behaviour can be captured in relatively simple algorithms. Expand
Diversity in the Chemotactic Behavior of Physarum Plasmodium Induced by Bi-modal Stimuli
The diversity of the behaviors of the plasmodium and how these behaviors may arise is demonstrated and a simulation model of the behavior was constructed that replicated the behavioral diversity with a simple combination of molecular apparatuses. Expand
A power law in the exploratory behavior of the Physarum plasmodium
It is found that the frequency distribution of the speed of plasmodial locomotion is fitted by power function and the efficiency of the exploration implemented with the patterns from the plas modium is actually effective. Expand


Control of chemotaxis in Physarum polycephalum
Peristalsis-like waves in Physarum move in the direction opposite from the net movement of the organism, and is fundamentally related to other known types of chemotaxis. Expand
Interaction between cell shape and contraction pattern in the Physarum plasmodium.
The vein organization of the cell interacts with the contractile activity to form a feedback loop in a mechanism of contraction pattern formation in the large amoeboid organism Physarum polycephalum. Expand
Propagation of phase wave in relation to tactic responses by the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum
The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum shows two-dimensional patterns in thickness oscillation and the sensed information seems integrated at the level of interacting oscillators. Expand
Reaction-diffusion-advection model for pattern formation of rhythmic contraction in a giant amoeboid cell of the physarum plasmodium
This work proposes a reaction-diffusion-advection model for the pattern formation of amoeboid behaviour in the Physarum plasmodium, constructed under physiological suggestions that the chemical oscillator acts as a clock regulating the rhythmic contraction. Expand
Pattern formation of a reaction-diffusion system with self-consistent flow in the amoeboid organism Physarum plasmodium
This work has studied effects of the self-determined flow on pattern formation of simple reaction-diffusion systems by weakly nonlinear analysis near a trivial solution. Expand
Navigating Complex Labyrinths: Optimal Paths from Chemical Waves
The properties of excitable media are exploited to find minimum-length paths in complex labyrinths using the collection of time-lapse position information on chemical waves propagating through mazes prepared with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Expand
Relationship between intracellular period modulation and external environment change in Physarum plasmodium.
It was clarified that the relative change in environmental condition is encoded on the relative period modulation in intracellular oscillation, which means that the period change does not directly represent the environment itself but represents the change of its condition. Expand
Reproductive success : studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems
This book is well worth buying for its detailed summaries of the 25 studies, and for its insights into the factors determining reproductive success. Expand
Path Finding with Nonlinear Waves
An N*N square lattice of nonlinear oscillators may show dynamical properties such as target waves. Under appropriate conditions, the target waves have unusual properties which can be used forExpand
Motions of spiral waves in oscillatory media and in the presence of obstacles.
  • Sepulchre, Babloyantz
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
  • 1993
The properties of spiral-wave propagation in oscillatory and finite media are considered. Several different types of trajectories of the spiral core are seen, as the distance from the boundaries isExpand