Intelligence: Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism

  title={Intelligence: Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism},
  author={Toshiyuki Nakagaki and Hiroyasu Yamada and {\'A}gota T{\'o}th},
The plasmodium of the slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large amoeba-like cell consisting of a dendritic network of tube-like structures (pseudopodia). It changes its shape as it crawls over a plain agar gel and, if food is placed at two different points, it will put out pseudopodia that connect the two food sources. Here we show that this simple organism has the ability to find the minimum-length solution between two points in a labyrinth. 

Smart behavior of true slime mold in a labyrinth.

Searching strategy of slime mold and its mathematical model

  • Kentaro ItoR. Kobayashi
  • Computer Science
    2017 56th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan (SICE)
  • 2017
It is found that slime mold can change the searching strategy by observing the slime mold in the branching lanes and a mathematical model of physarum expanding is made to explain this behavior.

Multi-scaled adaptability in motility and pattern formation of the Physarum plasmodium

How the plasmodium generates new motility and morphology is investigated, and it is found that there are allometric relationships between the cell volume and morphology, and between cell size and cell motility.

Fast shortest path optimization inspired by shuttle streaming of Physarum polycephalum

This work has proposed mathematical models to mimic the intelligent foraging behavior that can be used to find the shortest path between two points of a graph and found that the convergence of the proposed two versions, Physarum Optimization with Shuttle Streaming and POSS with mutation, are 40-11650 times faster when compared with the currently availablephysarum Solver method.

Observation of Autonomous Behavioral Selection in Physarum Plasmodium

This study focused on the phenomenon in which a plasmodium trapped in a closed space surrounded by repellent substances escapes from the field by changing its own behavior rules and demonstrated that this phenomenon is bio-computationally important in that it may enable the implementation of biological characteristics in computing.

Milestone V

The ultimate goal of this research is to observe how the mold evolves in into an efficient tubular network when faced with limited food sources, and to develop a mathematical model to predict and explain the network formation while considering the biological influences.

Adaptive Path-Finding and Transport Network Formation by the Amoeba-Like Organism Physarum

Some factors that can affect path-finding through networks are reported here to help understand more generally how the organism tries to establish an optimal set of paths in more complex environments and how this behaviour can be captured in relatively simple algorithms.

Diversity in the Chemotactic Behavior of Physarum Plasmodium Induced by Bi-modal Stimuli

The diversity of the behaviors of the plasmodium and how these behaviors may arise is demonstrated and a simulation model of the behavior was constructed that replicated the behavioral diversity with a simple combination of molecular apparatuses.

Insights into Information Processing by the Single Cell Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum

A simple explanation for the finding that a simple single-celled organism can traverse a maze near optimally and a computational model based on decision trees and ant algorithmics are presented.

Path Planning with Slime Molds: A Biology-Inspired Approach

An Artificial Plasmodium Algorithm (APA) mimicked a contraction wave of a plas modium of physarum polucephalum to solve mazes and it is confirmed that the APA can solve the mazes.



Control of chemotaxis in Physarum polycephalum

Peristalsis-like waves in Physarum move in the direction opposite from the net movement of the organism, and is fundamentally related to other known types of chemotaxis.

Reaction-diffusion-advection model for pattern formation of rhythmic contraction in a giant amoeboid cell of the physarum plasmodium

This work proposes a reaction-diffusion-advection model for the pattern formation of amoeboid behaviour in the Physarum plasmodium, constructed under physiological suggestions that the chemical oscillator acts as a clock regulating the rhythmic contraction.

Pattern formation of a reaction-diffusion system with self-consistent flow in the amoeboid organism Physarum plasmodium

This work has studied effects of the self-determined flow on pattern formation of simple reaction-diffusion systems by weakly nonlinear analysis near a trivial solution.

Relationship between intracellular period modulation and external environment change in Physarum plasmodium.

It was clarified that the relative change in environmental condition is encoded on the relative period modulation in intracellular oscillation, which means that the period change does not directly represent the environment itself but represents the change of its condition.

Reproductive success : studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems

This book is well worth buying for its detailed summaries of the 25 studies, and for its insights into the factors determining reproductive success.

Motions of spiral waves in oscillatory media and in the presence of obstacles.

  • SepulchreBabloyantz
  • Physics
    Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
  • 1993
The properties of spiral-wave propagation in oscillatory and finite media are considered. Several different types of trajectories of the spiral core are seen, as the distance from the boundaries is

Chemical Oscillations, Waves, and Turbulence