Intellectual Property and Consolidation in the Seed Industry

@article{Howard2015IntellectualPA,
  title={Intellectual Property and Consolidation in the Seed Industry},
  author={P. Howard},
  journal={Crop Science},
  year={2015},
  volume={55},
  pages={2489-2495}
}
Intellectual property protections on seeds have increased dramatically in recent decades, from the granting of patent-like protections on certain types of seeds in 1970 to the enforcement of contract provisions for seeds beyond the �耀rst sale in 2013. During this same period, the seed industry has experienced rapid consolidation. Although as recently as the 1970s, it was characterized by thousands of small, mostly family-owned business, by 2011, just three agrochemical �耀rms controlled more… Expand

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