Integration of what and where in the primate prefrontal cortex.

  title={Integration of what and where in the primate prefrontal cortex.},
  author={S. Chenchal Rao and Gregor Rainer and Earl K. Miller},
  volume={276 5313},
The visual system separates processing of an object's form and color ("what") from its spatial location ("where"). In order to direct action to objects, the identity and location of those objects must somehow be integrated. To examine whether this process occurs within the prefrontal (PF) cortex, the activity of 195 PF neurons was recorded during a task that engaged both what and where working memory. Some neurons showed either object-tuned (what) or location-tuned (where) delay activity… 

Memory fields of neurons in the primate prefrontal cortex.

  • G. RainerW. AsaadE. Miller
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Results indicate that PF neurons can simultaneously convey precise location and object information and thus may play a role in constructing a unified representation of a visual scene.

A model for simultaneous encoding of "where" and "what" information in prefrontal cortex

This study proposes a model of a cortical network with biologically realistic properties that demonstrates a combined representation of stimulus identity and location and proposes a mechanism that contributes to working memory.

Shape selectivity in primate lateral intraparietal cortex

It is shown that many neurons in primate posterior parietal cortex show sensory shape selectivities to simple, two-dimensional geometric shapes while the animal performs a simple fixation task, and these units show shape selectivity equivalent to any shown in the ventral pathway.

Binding of What and Where During Working Memory Maintenance

Coding of Objects in the Prefrontal Cortex in Monkeys and Humans

  • G. RainerC. Ranganath
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2002
Recent experimental findings suggest that regions of the prefrontal cortex participate in the selection, maintenance, and evaluation of task-relevant attributes in monkeys and humans.

Integration of temporal order and object information in the monkey lateral prefrontal cortex.

The findings suggest that LPFC cells are involved in encoding temporal sequences of events when such information is required for planning forthcoming motor behavior.

The role of the parietal cortex in visual feature binding

Using functional MRI (fMRI), it is shown that regions of the parietal cortex involved in spatial attention are more engaged in feature conjunction tasks than in single feature tasks when multiple objects are shown simultaneously at different locations but not when they are shown sequentially at the same location.

Neural Activity in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex during Associative Learning

From perception to action: temporal integrative functions of prefrontal and parietal neurons.

A visuomotor task that dissociated the perceptual and executive aspects of the perception-action cycle in both space and time provides physiological evidence for the role of a prefrontal-parietal network in the integration of perception with action across time.



Dissociation of object and spatial processing domains in primate prefrontal cortex.

These findings indicate that the prefrontal cortex contains separate processing mechanisms for remembering "what" and "where" an object is.

Responses of neurons in the parietal and temporal visual pathways during a motion task

It is concluded that extraretinal signals related to the match-to-sample task may be stronger in the temporal (color/form) pathway than in the parietal (motion) pathway, regardless of the stimulus dimension involved.

Neural Mechanisms of Visual Working Memory in Prefrontal Cortex of the Macaque

It is suggested that PF cortex plays a primary role in working memory tasks and may be a source of feedback inputs to IT cortex, biasing activity in favor of behaviorally relevant stimuli.

Visuospatial versus visuomotor activity in the premotor and prefrontal cortex of a primate

  • G. di PellegrinoS. Wise
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1993
The hypothesis that the motor significance of visuospatial cues should commonly affect neuronal activity in the premotor cortex, but less commonly do so in the prefrontal cortex is tested and confirmed.

Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex.

Three recent developments that have yielded insight into information processing and flow within extrastriate cortex are focused on.

Prefrontal neuronal activity in rhesus monkeys performing a delayed anti-saccade task

It is shown that most prefrontal neurons code the location of the visual stimulus in working memory, and that this memory can be engaged to suppress as well as prescribe a response, and a role for visual memory in response suppression is suggested.

Neuron Activity Related to Short-Term Memory

Nerve cells in the monkey's prefrontal cortex and nucleus medialis dorsalis of the thalamus show changes of firing frequency associated with the performance of a delayed response test, interpreted as suggestive evidence of a role of frontothalamic circuits in the attentive process involved in short-term memory.

Projections to the frontal cortex from the posterior parietal region in the rhesus monkey

The projections to the frontal cortex from the various subdivisions of the posterior parietal region in the rhesus monkey were studied by means of autoradiographic technique. The rostral superior