The present study demonstrates that humans' response to a single stimulus (S1) is determined by what follows S1's associates. The experiment used a sensory preconditioning (SPC) design where S1 was associated with both S2 and S3 on separate trials before establishing relationships between these latter stimuli with an outcome or its absence in a second phase. When S2 and S3 were associated with the same consequence, either an outcome or its absence, strong consequence-based responding to S1 was observed in a reaction time test. Participants responded quickly to indicate that the outcome was, or was not, predicted by S1. When S2 predicted the outcome and S3 did not, SPC was weaker although participants were not slower to respond to S1. Implications on the understanding of the mechanisms that allow for the response to S1 to emerge are discussed.