Integrating Approaches Requires More Than a Division of Labor

  title={Integrating Approaches Requires More Than a Division of Labor},
  author={Catharine P Cross and Anne Campbell},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={248 - 250}
In a recent article, Wölfer and Hewstone argue that evolutionary psychology—and, in particular, sexual-selection theory—is useful for understanding sex differences in same-sex aggression, while social-role theory is best applied to sex differences in opposite-sex aggression. Wölfer and Hewstone tested this proposal using a rich data set containing high school students’ reports of their peers’ aggression. They regressed classroom-level sex differences in sameand opposite-sex aggression onto five… 
3 Citations

Benevolent Sexism and Mate Preferences: Why Do Women Prefer Benevolent Men Despite Recognizing That They Can Be Undermining?

Understanding of women’s motives for endorsing BS is extended and it is suggested that women prefer BS men despite having awareness of the harmful consequences.

Different Outcomes Require Different Explanations

This reply to Cross and Campbell (2017) argues that it is less helpful to prioritize one theory than it is to consider both equally in one’s conceptual reasoning and analytic models, and that disentangling both types of sex differences in aggressive behavior will improve not only their theoretical fit with sexual-selection theory and with social-role theory, but also the accuracy of analytic models.



Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression

The value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components is suggested.

Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?

  • J. Archer
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Behavioral and brain sciences
  • 2009
I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial

Biosocial Construction of Sex Differences and Similarities in Behavior

Women's Competition and Aggression

For female mammals, the rewards of aggression (such as increased rank) rarely outweigh the costs (injury or death). These costs exert a stronger effect on natural selection in females than males

Gender and aggressive behavior: a meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature.

It is found that although men were somewhat more aggressive than women on the average, sex differences were inconsistent across studies and that aggression sex differences are a function of perceived consequences of aggression that are learned as aspects of gender roles and other social roles.

Cross-Cultural Differences in Physical Aggression Between Partners: A Social-Role Analysis

  • J. Archer
  • Sociology, Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2006
An analysis of 52 nations showed that 3 indexes of women%'s victimization were also inversely correlated with gender equality and individualism, and sexist attitudes and relative approval of wife beating were also associated with women%', but general levels of violent crime were not.

Violence and Aggression in Women

It is found that fear—rather than anger, impulsivity, or sensation seeking—shows consistent sex differences in the anticipated direction and is the strongest candidate for accounting for women’s relatively low involvement in aggression.

Women's aggression

Sex differences in impulsivity: a meta-analysis.

The results indicate a stronger sex difference in motivational rather than effortful or executive forms of behavior control, which support evolutionary and biological theories of risk taking predicated on sex differences in punishment sensitivity.

A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences.

The cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy, is reviewed.