Insulinoma-released exosomes or microparticles are immunostimulatory and can activate autoreactive T cells spontaneously developed in nonobese diabetic mice.

@article{Sheng2011InsulinomareleasedEO,
  title={Insulinoma-released exosomes or microparticles are immunostimulatory and can activate autoreactive T cells spontaneously developed in nonobese diabetic mice.},
  author={Huiming Sheng and Saleema Hassanali and Courtney A Nugent and Li Wen and Emma E Hamilton-Williams and Peter B. Dias and Yang D. Dai},
  journal={Journal of immunology},
  year={2011},
  volume={187 4},
  pages={1591-600}
}
Exosomes (EXO) are secreted intracellular microparticles that can trigger inflammation and induce Ag-specific immune responses. To test possible roles of EXO in autoimmunity, we isolated small microparticles, mainly EXO, from mouse insulinoma and examined their activities to stimulate the autoimmune responses in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes. We demonstrate that the EXO contains strong innate stimuli and expresses candidate diabetes autoantigens. They can induce secretion of… CONTINUE READING
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