Insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy clinical evidence, mechanisms, and treatment options.

  title={Insulin-resistant cardiomyopathy clinical evidence, mechanisms, and treatment options.},
  author={Ronald M. Witteles and Michael Bruce Fowler},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
  volume={51 2},
Increasing evidence points to insulin resistance as a primary etiologic factor in the development of nonischemic heart failure (HF). The myocardium normally responds to injury by altering substrate metabolism to increase energy efficiency. Insulin resistance prevents this adaptive response and can lead to further injury by contributing to lipotoxicity, sympathetic up-regulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Animal models have repeatedly demonstrated the existence of an insulin… CONTINUE READING
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