Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

@article{Freund2008InsulinRD,
  title={Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.},
  author={Christian Freund and Dorien Ward-van Oostwaard and Jantine J. Monshouwer-Kloots and Stieneke van den Brink and Marga A van Rooijen and Xiuqin Xu and Robert Zweigerdt and Christine L Mummery and Robert Passier},
  journal={Stem cells},
  year={2008},
  volume={26 3},
  pages={724-33}
}
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like growth factors and their intracellular downstream target protein kinase Akt are known to protect many cell types from apoptosis and to promote proliferation, including hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Here… CONTINUE READING

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