Insulin-like modulation of Akt/FoxO signaling by copper ions is independent of insulin receptor.

Copper ions are known to induce insulin-like effects in various cell lines, stimulating the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade and leading to the phosphorylation of downstream targets, including FoxO transcription factors. The aim of this work was to study the role of insulin- and IGF1-receptors (IR and IGF1R) in insulin-like signaling… (More)