HOPS: a novel cAMP-dependent shuttling protein involved in protein synthesis regulation.
In a subline of Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells that becomes quiescent under serum-deprived conditions, insulin acts as a growth factor. When added to serum-deprived H35 cells, physiologic concentrations of insulin stimulate DNA synthesis, demonstrating that insulin alone is capable of inducing a transition from G0/G1 into S phase. This response, which is induced by nanomolar concentrations of insulin, is mediated directly through the insulin receptor. Here we show that coincident with this growth response, insulin or serum induces dramatic increases in the steady-state levels of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs in serum-deprived H35 cells in a time course similar to that observed in the regenerating liver. Other growth factors, including epidermal growth factor, appear not to affect these cells either in terms of DNA synthesis or c-myc mRNA induction. The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also induces c-myc and c-fos mRNAs without inducing DNA synthesis. However, the mechanism of this induction appears to be different from the insulin-induced induction since pretreatment of cells with PMA blocks only the PMA-mediated, not the insulin-mediated, induction of c-myc and c-fos.