Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Inhibition Induces a Resistance Mechanism via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/HER3/AKT Signaling Pathway: Rational Basis for Cotargeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

@article{DesboisMouthon2009InsulinLikeGF,
  title={Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Inhibition Induces a Resistance Mechanism via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/HER3/AKT Signaling Pathway: Rational Basis for Cotargeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma},
  author={Christ{\`e}le Desbois-Mouthon and Aurore Baron and Marie-Jos{\'e} Blivet-Van Eggelpo{\"e}l and Laetitia Fartoux and Corinne Venot and Friedhelm Bladt and Chantal Housset and Olivier Rosmorduc},
  journal={Clinical Cancer Research},
  year={2009},
  volume={15},
  pages={5445 - 5456}
}
Purpose: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis is frequently dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we investigated whether the specific targeting of the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) might represent a new therapeutic approach for this tumor. Experimental Design: Total and phosphorylated levels of IGF-1R were measured in 21 paired samples of human HCCs and adjacent nontumoral livers using ELISA. The antineoplastic potency of a novel anti–IGF-1R antibody, AVE1642… 

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