Insulin, insulin receptors, and cancer

@article{Vigneri2016InsulinIR,
  title={Insulin, insulin receptors, and cancer},
  author={Riccardo Vigneri and Ira D. Goldfine and Lucia Frittitta},
  journal={Journal of Endocrinological Investigation},
  year={2016},
  volume={39},
  pages={1365-1376}
}
Insulin is a major regulator of cell metabolism but, in addition, is also a growth factor. Insulin effects in target cells are mediated by the insulin receptor (IR), a transmembrane protein with enzymatic (tyrosine kinase) activity. The insulin receptor, however, is represented by a heterogeneous family of proteins, including two different IR isoforms and also hybrid receptors resulting from the IR hemireceptor combination with a hemireceptor of the cognate IGF-1 receptor. These different… 
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