Insular Cortex Lesions Impair the Acquisition of Conditioned Immunosuppression

  title={Insular Cortex Lesions Impair the Acquisition of Conditioned Immunosuppression},
  author={Victor Ramirez-Amaya and Benjam{\'i}n Alvarez-Borda and Christopher E. Ormsby and Rub{\'e}n D. Martı́nez and Ruy P{\'e}rez-Montfort and Federico Berm{\'u}dez-Rattoni},
  journal={Brain, Behavior, and Immunity},
Conditioned immunosuppression can be readily obtained in animals by associating a taste with an immunosuppressive drug. On subsequent exposure to the conditioned taste, the animals show an attenuated immune response and also exhibit a conditioned taste aversion. It has been established that insular cortex lesions disrupt the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion. The effect of NMDA-induced lesions in either the insular cortex or the parietal cortex of male Wistar rats was evaluated in the… 

Differential Effects of NMDA-Induced Lesions into the Insular Cortex and Amygdala on the Acquisition and Evocation of Conditioned Immunosuppression

The results of this work suggest that the IC is involved in the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition and evocation of conditioned immunosuppression, and the amygdala could be important in mediating the input of the immune information necessary for the acquisition of conditioned immunity.

Neural Substrates for Behaviorally Conditioned Immunosuppression in the Rat

The present data reveal relevant neural mechanisms underlying the learning and memory processes of behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression.

Conditioned Enhancement of Antibody Production Is Disrupted by Insular Cortex and Amygdala but Not Hippocampal Lesions

Evidence that an excitotoxic lesion bilaterally applied into the insular cortex or the amygdala, but not into the dorsal hippocampus, impaired the acquisition of both odor and gustatory conditioned immune enhancement is shown, suggesting that the amygdala and theinsular cortex are involved in the neural-immune interactions that mediate conditioned immunity.

Murine taste-immune associative learning

Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-induced, but not lithium chloride-induced, suppression of conditioned stimulus intake.

The current data show that the insular taste cortex plays an integral role in drug-induced avoidance of a gustatory CS, and is overridden by a 20 mg/kg dose of the drug.

Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-, but not LiCl-, induced suppression of CS intake

The current data show that the insular taste cortex plays an integral role in drug-induced avoidance of a gustatory CS in rats, and is overridden by a 20 mg/ kg dose of the drug.

Short communication Murine taste-immune associative learning

The present results indicate that mice seem to be capable of associating a gustative stimulus with CsA, resulting in behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression without aVecting appetitive behavior.


Increased knowledge about the neuropsychological machinery steering learning and memory processes together with recent insight into the mechanisms mediating placebo responses provides fascinating perspectives to exploit these learned immune and neuroendocrine responses as supportive therapies, the aim being to reduce the amount of medication required, diminishing unwanted drug side effects while maximizing the therapeutic effect for the patient's benefit.



Behaviorally Conditioned Immunosuppression

Conditioned animals exposed to saccharin at the time of or following the injection of antigen were significantly immunosuppressed, and hemagglutinating antibody titers measured 6 days after antigen administration were high in placebo‐treated rats.

The Effects of Kainic Acid-Induced Lesions in the Lateral Septal Area on Cell-Mediated Immune Function

The results indicate that rats with KA lesions in the LSA have significantly higher NK cell activity, significantly lower numbers of splenic PFCs, and significantly reduced TNF-alpha secretion from splenic macrophages, relative to controls, which demonstrates the importance of KA-sensitive LSA neurons in neuroimmunoregulation.

Lesions of the hippocampus enhance or depress humoral immunity in rats.

The results suggest that different areas of the hippocampus can stimulate or inhibit humoral immunity, and chemical destruction of pyramidal cell bodies in CA2 and CA3 significantly increased humoral immune as measured by HC50, but larger chemical lesions that also included CA1 did not.

Brain neocortex immunomodulation in rats

CNS–immune system interactions: Conditioning phenomena

Converging data from different disciplines indicate that central nervous system processes are capable of influencing immune responses and it appears that the immune system is integrated with other psychophysiological processes and subject to modulation by the brain.

Conditioned suppression of humoral immunity in the rat.

Conconditioned animals reexposed to the CS had lower antibody titers than placebo-treated animals 4, 6, and 8 days after antigenic stimulation, suggesting that reexposure to a CS may have long-lasting effects.

Dopamine D1 Receptors in the Amygdala Enhance the Immune Response in the Rat a

Results indicate that activation of dopamine D1 receptors within the central amygdala induced selective stimulation of mitogen responsiveness of splenocytes and suggest that specificactivation of dopamine neurotransmission within selected areas of the limbic system may produce immunoenhancing effects, which further confirm the immunomodulatory role played by dopaminergic mechanisms in the brain.

Asymmetrical brain modulation of the immune response

  • P. Neveu
  • Biology, Psychology
    Brain Research Reviews
  • 1992