Insular Cortex Lesions Impair the Acquisition of Conditioned Immunosuppression

@article{RamirezAmaya1996InsularCL,
  title={Insular Cortex Lesions Impair the Acquisition of Conditioned Immunosuppression},
  author={Victor Ramirez-Amaya and Benjam{\'i}n Alvarez-Borda and Christopher E. Ormsby and Rub{\'e}n D. Martı́nez and Ruy P{\'e}rez-Montfort and Federico Berm{\'u}dez-Rattoni},
  journal={Brain, Behavior, and Immunity},
  year={1996},
  volume={10},
  pages={103-114}
}
Conditioned immunosuppression can be readily obtained in animals by associating a taste with an immunosuppressive drug. On subsequent exposure to the conditioned taste, the animals show an attenuated immune response and also exhibit a conditioned taste aversion. It has been established that insular cortex lesions disrupt the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion. The effect of NMDA-induced lesions in either the insular cortex or the parietal cortex of male Wistar rats was evaluated in the… 

Differential Effects of NMDA-Induced Lesions into the Insular Cortex and Amygdala on the Acquisition and Evocation of Conditioned Immunosuppression

The results of this work suggest that the IC is involved in the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition and evocation of conditioned immunosuppression, and the amygdala could be important in mediating the input of the immune information necessary for the acquisition of conditioned immunity.

Neural Substrates for Behaviorally Conditioned Immunosuppression in the Rat

The present data reveal relevant neural mechanisms underlying the learning and memory processes of behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression.

Conditioned Enhancement of Antibody Production Is Disrupted by Insular Cortex and Amygdala but Not Hippocampal Lesions

Evidence that an excitotoxic lesion bilaterally applied into the insular cortex or the amygdala, but not into the dorsal hippocampus, impaired the acquisition of both odor and gustatory conditioned immune enhancement is shown, suggesting that the amygdala and theinsular cortex are involved in the neural-immune interactions that mediate conditioned immunity.

Murine taste-immune associative learning

Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-induced, but not lithium chloride-induced, suppression of conditioned stimulus intake.

The current data show that the insular taste cortex plays an integral role in drug-induced avoidance of a gustatory CS, and is overridden by a 20 mg/kg dose of the drug.

Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-, but not LiCl-, induced suppression of CS intake

The current data show that the insular taste cortex plays an integral role in drug-induced avoidance of a gustatory CS in rats, and is overridden by a 20 mg/ kg dose of the drug.

Short communication Murine taste-immune associative learning

The present results indicate that mice seem to be capable of associating a gustative stimulus with CsA, resulting in behaviorally conditioned immunosuppression without aVecting appetitive behavior.

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING OF IMMUNOLOGICAL AND NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS.

Increased knowledge about the neuropsychological machinery steering learning and memory processes together with recent insight into the mechanisms mediating placebo responses provides fascinating perspectives to exploit these learned immune and neuroendocrine responses as supportive therapies, the aim being to reduce the amount of medication required, diminishing unwanted drug side effects while maximizing the therapeutic effect for the patient's benefit.

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