Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials

@article{Canter2004InsufficientET,
  title={Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials},
  author={Peter H. Canter and Edzard Ernst},
  journal={Journal of Hypertension},
  year={2004},
  volume={22},
  pages={2049-2054}
}
Objective To carry out an independent, systematic review of randomized clinical trials of Transcendental Meditation (TM) for cumulative effects on blood pressure. Method Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official web sites of the TM organization. We included only randomized clinical trials, without confounding co-interventions, which measured the cumulative effects of TM on blood pressure. Results Six trials met the inclusion criteria but one, reported only… 
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References

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TLDR
Mental and physical stress reduction approaches (Transcendental Meditation and progressive muscle relaxation) were compared with a lifestyle modification education control program and with each other, and linear trend analysis confirmed these patterns.
A randomised controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans.
TLDR
Mental and physical stress reduction approaches (Transcendental Meditation and progressive muscle relaxation) were compared with a lifestyle modification education control program and with each other, and linear trend analysis confirmed these patterns.
A Meta‐Analysis of the Effects Of Psychoeducational Care in Adults with Hypertension
A meta-analysis of 102 studies was conducted to determine the effects of psychoeducational care on blood pressure (n = 89), knowledge about hypertension (n = 30), medication compliance (n = 23),
A controlled study of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on cardiovascular reactivity and ambulatory blood pressure.
TLDR
Since ambulatory BP monitoring has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular complications of hypertension than clinic BP, this finding may have important implications for primary prevention of CVD in normotensive subjects.
Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis.
TLDR
Effects of stress reduction on blood pressure were found to generalize to both sexes and diverse risk factor subgroups and were significantly greater in the Transcendental Meditation treatment group.
Transcendental meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with the elderly.
TLDR
A planned comparison indicated that the "restful alert" TM group improved most, followed by MF, in contrast to relaxation and no-treatment groups, on paired associate learning; 2 measures of cognitive flexibility; mental health; systolic blood pressure; and ratings of behavioral flexibility, aging, and treatment efficacy.
Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program in Treatment and Prevention
TLDR
Transcendental Meditation reduces risk factors and can slow or reverse the progression of pathophysiological changes underlying cardiovascular disease, and the magnitudes of these effects compare favorably with those of conventional interventions for secondary prevention.
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