Insufficient evidence for the discovery of transgenes in Mexican landraces

@article{Schoel2009InsufficientEF,
  title={Insufficient evidence for the discovery of transgenes in Mexican landraces},
  author={Bernd Schoel and John Fagan},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
  year={2009},
  volume={18}
}
In the recently published article ‘Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations’ by Pineyro-Nelson et al. (2009), the authors report the finding of transgenes in Oaxacan maize landraces and make several claims to which we feel compelled to respond. The authors maintain that testing of leaf tissues in general, and in particular at Genetic ID (GID), is inclined to false negative results and that the presence of… 
Detecting adventitious transgenic events in a maize center of diversity
TLDR
This research could not detect, at the 95% probability level, transgenes in farmers' fields in the valley of Barranca, where there were recent claims of authorized transgenic maize grown.
Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures
  • G. Ryffel
  • Biology, Medicine
    GM crops & food
  • 2014
TLDR
If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape, and efficient containment should be the standard approach in cases where a transgenic trait is needed.
Challenges for transgene detection in landraces and wild relatives: learning from 15 years of debate over GM maize in Mexico
TLDR
The peer-reviewed literature on transgene detection in Mexican maize is reviewed and the key methodological aspects under dispute are identified and pinpoint the research bottlenecks and needs for building the capacity to effectively monitor transGene escape from GM crops to wild relatives or landraces are pinpointed.
Transgene flow in Mexican maize revisited: Socio‐biological analysis across two contrasting farmer communities and seed management systems
TLDR
It is argued that future analysis of transgene presence should include social research on the seed management practices in the sampling area so that more robust and comprehensive understandings and conclusions can be drawn.
Transgene introgression in crop relatives: molecular evidence and mitigation strategies.
TLDR
It is posit that transgene introgression monitoring and mitigation strategies are warranted in cases in which transgenes are predicted to confer selective advantages and disadvantages to recipient hosts, and the utility and consequences of such strategies are examined.
Genetic Engineering and Transgenic Breeding
Transgenic seed technology takes about 10 years to be in the market. Its performance should be assessed through environmental, economic, and social impacts, which are the pillars of sustainable
Genetically modified myths and realities.
TLDR
Myths abound when it comes to GE crops, but the net result is that changes similar to what happens during the production of engineered plants takes place anyway in plant genomes.
Resolution of the Mexican transgene detection controversy: error sources and scientific practice in commercial and ecological contexts
TLDR
This work presents a new, large-scale, probabilistic model that allows us to assess the importance of daylight saving time in the breeding process and its importance in the development of new varieties of plants.
Genetic fallout in bio-cultural landscapes: Molecular imperialism and the cultural politics of (not) seeing transgenes in Mexico
TLDR
This article explores the trajectory of the global controversy over the introgression (or not) of transgenes from genetically modified maize into Mexican indigenous maize landraces and analyzed how a particular in vitro based DNA-centered knowledge came to marginalize other forms of knowledge, thus obscuring other bio-cultural dimensions key to the understanding of gene flow and maize diversity.
Plant Breeding in the Omics Era
TLDR
Diversity, Intellectual Property and Plant Variety Protection Plant Genetic Resources The Question of Derivatives Multinational Private and Public Seed Sectors Managing Agro-biotechnology Intellectual Property Rights.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-3 OF 3 REFERENCES
Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations
TLDR
Analytical and sampling considerations help explain discrepancies among different detection efforts, and provide considerations for the establishment of monitoring protocols to detect the presence of transgenes among structured populations of landraces, suggest the persistence or re‐introduction of transGenes up until 2004 in this area.
Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004).
TLDR
It is concluded that transgenic maize seeds were absent or extremely rare in the sampled fields, providing a much-needed preliminary baseline for understanding the biological, socioeconomic, and ethical implications of the inadvertent dispersal of transgenes from the United States and elsewhere to local landraces of maize in Mexico.
Rates of spontaneous mutation.
TLDR
It is now possible to specify some of the evolutionary forces that shape these diverse mutation rates in broad groups of organisms.