Instruments for the Assessment of Pain in Older Persons with Cognitive Impairment

@article{Stolee2005InstrumentsFT,
  title={Instruments for the Assessment of Pain in Older Persons with Cognitive Impairment},
  author={Paul Stolee and Loretta M. Hillier and Jacquelin Esbaugh and Nancy Bol and Laurie McKellar and Nicole Durisch Gauthier},
  journal={Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
  year={2005},
  volume={53}
}
Pain in older persons with cognitive impairment is often unrecognized and inadequately treated. A major problem associated with this undertreatment is the challenging nature of pain assessment and in particular the selection of accurate and useful assessment instruments. The purpose of this study was to review pain measurement instruments for acute and chronic pain suggested for use with cognitively impaired older persons and to summarize available evidence on their reliability and validity. A… 

Pain assessment tools for older people with cognitive impairment.

TLDR
From a review of the literature, the authors conclude that pain assessment in older people with any degree of cognitive impairment is complex and there is no gold standard.

Instruments of paIn evaluatIon In elderly wIth cognItIve ImpaIrment: systematIc revIew

TLDR
Pain Assessment in Advance Dementia and Doloplus were tested in most studies, and both results revealed variable levels of internal consistency, reliability and interrater correlation.

A Review of Observational Pain Scales in Nonverbal Elderly With Cognitive Impairments

TLDR
Results indicate that various scales are available for assessing pain in cognitively impaired or demented older adults who are unable to report their pain, but future research should focus on further psychometric evaluations.

Chronic Pain in the Elderly with Cognitive Decline: A Narrative Review

TLDR
Current knowledge, methods of detection and treatment approaches for chronic pain in elderly persons with cognitive deficits, and the presence of cognitive impairment are described.

Pain assessment strategies in older patients.

  • K. Herr
  • Medicine
    The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society
  • 2011

Observational pain assessment scales for people with dementia: a review.

TLDR
It is concluded that observational pain scales need to be validated for use in the community and that there is a need to consider the involvement of the informal carer in the assessment of pain.

Pain assessment tools for older adults with dementia in long-term care facilities: a systematic review.

TLDR
Self-report should be the first-line approach when possible, with observational assessment used as a supplementary tool, and Reliable observational tools have been shortened, and shown to maintain high reliability/validity, and positive psychometric properties.

Pain assessment in the older population: what the literature says

TLDR
The guideline summarises the pain assessment tools that have been developed and validated for use in the older population and recommendations are made for use of specific tools in older people and in those with dementia.

The Quality of Pain Treatment in Community-Dwelling Persons with Dementia

TLDR
Community-dwelling elders with dementia are underdiagnosed and undertreated for pain and nonpharmacological interventions were underused.

The utility of pain assessment for analgesic use in persons with dementia

...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES

Examining pain in aggressive cognitively impaired older adults.

TLDR
Nurses who are aware of a history of pain, reports of pain by families and caregivers, presence of pain-related medical diagnoses, and who realize pain may be a trigger for aggressive behavior may be more likely to recognize pain in cognitively impaired older adults.

Development and psychometric evaluation of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale.

TLDR
The PAINAD is a simple, valid, and reliable instrument for measurement of pain in noncommunicative patients and has satisfactory reliability by internal consistency with a one factor solution.

Pain assessment in elders: practical tips.

  • M. Heye
  • Medicine
    Nurse practitioner forum
  • 1997
TLDR
Information is provided on how to address barriers to pain assessment and current research that will help the practitioner devise strategies to obtain the data for an accurate and valid pain assessment.

Pain Assessment for the Dementing Elderly (PADE): reliability and validity of a new measure.

TLDR
The PADE is a reliable and valid tool to assess pain in dementing elderly residents of long-term care facilities and differentiated between groups that were independently judged to suffer clinically problematic pain versus those who were not.

The development and testing of the PATCOA to assess pain in confused older adults.

  • S. DeckerA. Perry
  • Psychology
    Pain management nursing : official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
  • 2003

The memorial pain assessment card. A valid instrument for the evaluation of cancer pain

TLDR
The Memorial Pain Assessment Card can distinguish pain intensity from pain relief and from general psychological distress, and it can provide multidimensional assessment that is practically equivalent to the full assessment battery.

The relation of pain to depression among institutionalized aged.

Nursing home and congregate apartment residents (N = 598) were classified on the basis of a DSM-IIIR symptom checklist as suffering possible major, minor, or no depression; they also completed the

Assessment of pain during medical procedures: a comparison of three scales.

TLDR
Comparisons of the validity and utility of three measures of pain intensity during a medical procedure known to produce pain: an abortion concluded that the BS-21 is an excellent choice for assessing real-time abortion pain.

Visual Analogue Scales for Pain Assessment in Alzheimer’s Disease

TLDR
Visual analogue scales may improve pain assessment in those AD patients who fully comprehend the meaning of the scales, as only the minority of midstage AD patients understood the purpose of the FAS and FPS.

Assessment of discomfort in advanced Alzheimer patients.

An objective scale for measuring discomfort in noncommunicative patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease was empirically generated from the perspectives of nursing staff practicing on special care
...