Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*

@article{Richards1976InstrumentM,
  title={Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*},
  author={Oscar W. Richards},
  journal={Optometry and Vision Science},
  year={1976},
  volume={53},
  pages={658–663}
}
  • O. W. Richards
  • Published 1 October 1976
  • Medicine
  • Optometry and Vision Science
&NA; Looking through optical instruments stimulates the eye to accommodate more than would be necessary for naked eye viewing; this increased near power is called instrument myopia. The amount (up to ‐5 diopters) varies with the observer and the conditions of viewing. Using microscopes produces ‐1.5 to ‐2 diopters of instrument myopia. More instrument myopia is found with low‐power magnification, inexperienced users, and when focusing from minus blur to sharp image. Physiologically, the… 
Relationship among accommodation, focus, and resolution with optical instruments.
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    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
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TLDR
The amount of accommodation measured during instrument viewing was found to be dependent on instrument design features that modulate the bias of accommodation for the dark focus, which is consistent with the dark-focus-bias theory of accommodation.
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The literature on instrument myopia is reviewed, with the review organized around three principal objectives to discuss the intermediate resting state conception of accommodation, its application tostrument myopia, and its strengths and weaknesses as applied to the available literature.
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It is concluded that high mesopic levels of road luminance produced by street and vehicle lighting are normally too great to allow significant refractive shifts to occur, although acuity will be reduced due to light‐dependent neural changes.
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Five optometric tests for binocular vision and one for stereopsis revealed no significant correlation with the positions of the images, and the relations of these image positions with possible rest equilibrium positions ofThe accommodative mechanism of the eye and optical design of binocular instruments are discussed.
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Abstract : The level of accommodation during instrument viewing is influenced by the perceived nearness of the object in subjects with proximal, but not distal, dark focuses. Instrument myopia,
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The prevalence of myopia in Hong Kong microscopists was higher than that of United Kingdom microscopeopists and similar aged people within the general Hong Kong population, and the main contribution to instrument myopia is proximal accommodation due to the awareness of the closeness, caused by the height of the microscope.
Comparative analysis of Bausch and Lomb's IVEX refraction system and a traditional refraction
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Many of the IVEX findings compared quite favorably with the traditional refraction findings, however, some individual findings showed differences which warrant further study.
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