Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*

  title={Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*},
  author={Oscar W. Richards},
  journal={Optometry and Vision Science},
  • O. W. Richards
  • Published 1 October 1976
  • Medicine
  • Optometry and Vision Science
&NA; Looking through optical instruments stimulates the eye to accommodate more than would be necessary for naked eye viewing; this increased near power is called instrument myopia. The amount (up to ‐5 diopters) varies with the observer and the conditions of viewing. Using microscopes produces ‐1.5 to ‐2 diopters of instrument myopia. More instrument myopia is found with low‐power magnification, inexperienced users, and when focusing from minus blur to sharp image. Physiologically, the… 
Relationship among accommodation, focus, and resolution with optical instruments.
  • J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse
  • Psychology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 1994
The amount of accommodation measured during instrument viewing was found to be dependent on instrument design features that modulate the bias of accommodation for the dark focus, which is consistent with the dark-focus-bias theory of accommodation.
Instrument myopia conceptions, misconceptions, and influencing factors
The literature on instrument myopia is reviewed, with the review organized around three principal objectives to discuss the intermediate resting state conception of accommodation, its application tostrument myopia, and its strengths and weaknesses as applied to the available literature.
Night myopia and driving
It is concluded that high mesopic levels of road luminance produced by street and vehicle lighting are normally too great to allow significant refractive shifts to occur, although acuity will be reduced due to light‐dependent neural changes.
The Anomalous (or Induced) Myopias and the Intermediate Resting Point of Accommodation
Many theories have been suggested to explain independently the induced myopias — night myopia, empty field myopia, instrument myopia and small pupil myopia. Results of recent research have not
Focused apparent image position with convergent, parallel binocular and monocular microscopes
Five optometric tests for binocular vision and one for stereopsis revealed no significant correlation with the positions of the images, and the relations of these image positions with possible rest equilibrium positions ofThe accommodative mechanism of the eye and optical design of binocular instruments are discussed.
Accommodation During Instrument Viewing Can be Influenced by Knowledge of Object Distance
Abstract : The level of accommodation during instrument viewing is influenced by the perceived nearness of the object in subjects with proximal, but not distal, dark focuses. Instrument myopia,
Instrument myopia and myopia progression in Hong Kong microscopists
The prevalence of myopia in Hong Kong microscopists was higher than that of United Kingdom microscopeopists and similar aged people within the general Hong Kong population, and the main contribution to instrument myopia is proximal accommodation due to the awareness of the closeness, caused by the height of the microscope.
Comparative analysis of Bausch and Lomb's IVEX refraction system and a traditional refraction
Many of the IVEX findings compared quite favorably with the traditional refraction findings, however, some individual findings showed differences which warrant further study.