Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*

  title={Instrument Myopia—Microscopy*},
  author={Oscar W. Richards},
  journal={Optometry and Vision Science},
  • O. W. Richards
  • Published 1 October 1976
  • Medicine
  • Optometry and Vision Science
&NA; Looking through optical instruments stimulates the eye to accommodate more than would be necessary for naked eye viewing; this increased near power is called instrument myopia. The amount (up to ‐5 diopters) varies with the observer and the conditions of viewing. Using microscopes produces ‐1.5 to ‐2 diopters of instrument myopia. More instrument myopia is found with low‐power magnification, inexperienced users, and when focusing from minus blur to sharp image. Physiologically, the… 
Objective real-time measurement of instrument myopia in microscopists under different viewing conditions
Instrument myopia was measured under different viewing conditions and microscope settings and other factors may play more of a role in determining the degree of instrument myopia during microscopy than the task variables altered here.
Relationship among accommodation, focus, and resolution with optical instruments.
  • J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse
  • Computer Science, Medicine
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 1994
The amount of accommodation measured during instrument viewing was found to be dependent on instrument design features that modulate the bias of accommodation for the dark focus, which is consistent with the dark-focus-bias theory of accommodation.
Instrument myopia conceptions, misconceptions, and influencing factors
The literature on instrument myopia is reviewed, with the review organized around three principal objectives to discuss the intermediate resting state conception of accommodation, its application tostrument myopia, and its strengths and weaknesses as applied to the available literature.
Night myopia and driving
Current knowledge of the refractive shifts (twilight myopia, night myopia, dark focus) that occur as the luminance is progressively lowered from photopic levels is reviewed. In complete darkness,
The Anomalous (or Induced) Myopias and the Intermediate Resting Point of Accommodation
Many theories have been suggested to explain independently the induced myopias — night myopia, empty field myopia, instrument myopia and small pupil myopia. Results of recent research have not
Focused apparent image position with convergent, parallel binocular and monocular microscopes
Five optometric tests for binocular vision and one for stereopsis revealed no significant correlation with the positions of the images, and the relations of these image positions with possible rest equilibrium positions ofThe accommodative mechanism of the eye and optical design of binocular instruments are discussed.
Analysis of head position used by myopes and emmetropes when performing a near-vision reading task
Overall, while no differences in mean head posture were found between myopes and emmetropes, there was some evidence that head posture and movement during reading may differ in progressing myopes, and reading distances were systematically shorter with the helmet-mounted eye tracker.
Accommodation During Instrument Viewing Can be Influenced by Knowledge of Object Distance
Abstract : The level of accommodation during instrument viewing is influenced by the perceived nearness of the object in subjects with proximal, but not distal, dark focuses. Instrument myopia,
Instrument myopia and myopia progression in Hong Kong microscopists
People who work in occupations that involve intensive near work are thought to have a higher chance of developing myopia than other people. For example, microscopists in the United Kingdom have a
Comparative analysis of Bausch and Lomb's IVEX refraction system and a traditional refraction
Bausch and Lomb's IVEX system, a computerized subjective refractor, was evaluated, A modified Optometric Extension Program (OEP) twenty-one point examination was performed three times on each of