Instructional design models for well-structured and III-structured problem-solving learning outcomes

@article{Jonassen1997InstructionalDM,
  title={Instructional design models for well-structured and III-structured problem-solving learning outcomes},
  author={David H. Jonassen},
  journal={Educational Technology Research and Development},
  year={1997},
  volume={45},
  pages={65-94}
}
  • D. Jonassen
  • Published 1 March 1997
  • Computer Science
  • Educational Technology Research and Development
Although problem solving is regarded by most educators as among the most important learning outcomes, few instructional design prescriptions are available for designing problem-solving instruction and engaging learners. This paper distinguishes between well-structured problems and ill-structured problems. Well-structured problems are constrained problems with convergent solutions that engage the application of a limited number of rules and principles within well-defined parameters. Ill… 
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