Instability of Double-deficit Subtypes among At-risk First Grade

  title={Instability of Double-deficit Subtypes among At-risk First Grade},
  author={Janet E. Spector},
The double-deficit hypothesis provides a framework for identifying students atrisk for persistent reading difficulties. I examined the temporal stability of four double-deficit subtypes (no-deficit, naming-speed deficit, phonological deficit, and double-deficit) in 197 low-performing, first-grade readers. Concurrent analyses in fall and spring revealed that students with poor phonemic awareness and naming speed were the lowest readers in the sample; however, having a double-deficit in fall was… CONTINUE READING