This is the first study that focuses on insomnia in stroke patients. A subgroup of 277 patients from a consecutive series of 486 stroke patients aged 55-85 years was subjected to a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation 3-4 months after ischemic stroke. Of 277 patients, 56.7% reported any insomnia complaint and 37.5% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria of insomnia. In 38.6%, insomnia complaint/insomnia had already been present prior to the stroke and in 18.1%, it was a consequence of the stroke. Independent correlates of any insomnia complaint/insomnia were anxiety (Zung Anxiety Scale) and the use of psychotropic drug. Independent correlates of poststroke-onset insomnia complaint/insomnia were disability after stroke (Barthel Index), dementia, anxiety and use of psychotropic drug. Insomnia should be taken into consideration in treating and rehabilitating stroke patients.