Insights into retinoic acid deficiency and the induction of craniofacial malformations and microcephaly in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

@article{Petrelli2019InsightsIR,
  title={Insights into retinoic acid deficiency and the induction of craniofacial malformations and microcephaly in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder},
  author={Berardino Petrelli and Liat Bendelac and Geoffrey G. Hicks and Abraham Fainsod},
  journal={genesis},
  year={2019},
  volume={57}
}
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental malformations caused by maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. FASD sentinel facial features are unique to the disorder, and microcephaly is common in severe forms of FASD. Retinoic acid deficiency has been shown to cause craniofacial malformations and microcephaly in animal models reminiscent of those caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure affects the migration and survival of cranial neural crest… 
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