Inside Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Extracting the Refractive Index From Spatial-Spectral Mode Images

We present a method to extract the internal effective refractive index of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) from its transverse mode images. High spatial and spectral resolution mode images of an oxide-guided VCSEL were obtained using an etalon filter and an imaging spectrometer. The refractive index and the oxide radius were extracted from… CONTINUE READING