Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in Tribal Populations of Southern India and Their Possible Evolutionary Implications

@article{Vishwanathan2003InsertionDeletionPI,
  title={Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in Tribal Populations of Southern India and Their Possible Evolutionary Implications},
  author={Hucthagowder Vishwanathan and Deepa Edwin and M. V. Usharani and Partha P. Majumder},
  journal={Human Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={75},
  pages={873 - 887}
}
India has the unique distinction of having perhaps the largest diversities, both biological and cultural. The Nilgiri Hills of southern India, a home for several tribal pockets representing different genetic isolates, provides a genetic wealth to understand human evolution. We have analyzed eight widely distributed polymorphic insertion/deletion loci (AluAPO, AluACE, AluD1, AluPLAT, AluPV92, AluFXIIIB, CD4 del and mtNUC) in 250 unrelated individuals from five tribal populations (Badaga, Irula… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India
TLDR
This study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India through West Asian corridor.
Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in Indian Tribal Populations
TLDR
Another cluster analysis brings out no distinct cluster of the 5 AP tribes; instead these AP tribal populations are integrated into different subclusters of the UP and Bengal suggesting lack of distinct genetic identity of these AP tribes as far as the few Alu markers are concerned.
Genomic diversities and affinities among eight endogamous groups of Haryana (India): A study on insertion/deletion polymorphisms
TLDR
In various endogamous groups of Haryana, the time of divergence seems to be too small to reflect the genetic differences between them, so it may be possible that gene flow occurred prior to the sub-division into the present endogamy groups or the present populations might have the same sources of genes resulting in a low level of genetic differentiation.
Autosomal DNA Polymorphisms of Four South India Tribal Populations
TLDR
To examine what evolutionary forces have most significantly impacted south Indian tribal genetic variation, and to test whether the phenotypic similarities of some south India tribal groups to Africans represent a signature of close relationship to Africans or are due to convergence.
Alu Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism in Four Tribes of South India
TLDR
The results reveal that the study populations have received moderate gene flow compared to other populations, and all the studied biallelic loci are highly polymorphic in terms of allele frequencies and average heterozygosity.
Genomic Diversity and Affinities among Four Dravidian Tribal Populations of South India: A Study on Eighteen Autosomal DNA Markers
TLDR
DNA samples from 190 unrelated individuals belonging to four Dravidian tribal populations were analysed by nine human specific insertion / deletion polymorphic loci and nine restriction site polymorphIC loci to ascertain their genomic diversity and affinities with other Indian tribal populations.
Diversified genomic contribution among south Indian populations–A study on four endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh
TLDR
Although the presently studied populations of Andhra Pradesh have heterozygosity similar to that of Nilgiri hill populations, the former are more closely placed on the PCO plot than the latter, who are more scattered.
Genomic Heterogeneity of the Naga and Kuki Tribal Populations of Manipur, Northeast India
TLDR
Despite differential genetic affinities, both Naga and Kuki tribal populations in Manipur show more proximity with Southeast Asian populations and Northeast Indian populations than with other Indian populations and global populations taken for comparison.
Genetic sketch of the six population groups of Rajasthan: a study based on 12 autosomal loci
TLDR
It is suggested that the population groups of Rajasthan are genetically close to other Indian populations, reflecting a common genetic unity among the Indian populations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Human-specific insertion/deletion polymorphisms in Indian populations and their possible evolutionary implications
DNA samples from 396 unrelated individuals belonging to 14 ethnic populations of India, inhabiting various geographical locations and occupying various positions in the socio-cultural hierarchy, were
Patterns of ancestral human diversity: an analysis of Alu-insertion and restriction-site polymorphisms.
TLDR
The distribution of ancestral alleles is consistent with an origin of early modern human populations in sub-Saharan Africa, the isolation and preservation of ancestralalleles within Africa, and an expansion out of Africa into Eurasia.
Alu insertion polymorphisms and human evolution: evidence for a larger population size in Africa.
TLDR
The results support the African origin of modern humans in that an earlier expansion of the ancestors of African populations is indicated.
Polymorphic Alu insertions and the Asian origin of Native American populations.
TLDR
The results corroborate the Asian origin of native American populations but do not support the multiple-wave migration hypothesis supposedly responsible for the tri-partite Eskaleut, Nadene, and Amerind linguistic groups.
Insertion / Deletion DNA Polymorphisms in two South Indian Tribal Populations
Abstract DNA samples from 123 unrelated individuals belonging to 2 endogamous tribal populations, namely, the Koya Doras and Konda Reddis, of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, South India were
Haplotypes in tribal Indians bearing the sickle gene: evidence for the unicentric origin of the beta S mutation and the unicentric origin of the tribal populations of India.
TLDR
It is concluded that the beta S gene in presently isolated and disperse tribal populations in India is associated with one predominant typical haplotype, suggesting a unicentric origin of the mutation in India.
FUNDAMENTAL GENOMIC UNITY OF ETHNIC INDIA IS REVEALED BY ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA
TLDR
This indicates that Indian populations were founded by a small number of females, possibly arriving on one of the early waves of out-of-Africa migration of modern humans; ethnic differentiationern Chinaoccurred subsequently through demographic expan-sions and geographic dispersal.
Population studies on southwestern Indian tribes. II. Local genetic differentiation in the Papago.
In a previous publication we have described the ethnohistory and demography of the Papago Indians of southwestern Arizona (Niswander et al. 1970). During the review of the relevant anthropological
Population genetic studies in kerala and the nilgiris (South West India).
TLDR
Genetic distance estimates using the gene frequency data indicate that the closest groups in Kerala and the Nilgiri Hills are the Nayar and Izhava and the Brahmin and Nayar, and the tribal populations are approximately twice as far from the NayAR as they are from the Izhva.
The distribution of human genetic diversity: a comparison of mitochondrial, autosomal, and Y-chromosome data.
TLDR
Analysis of worldwide genetic variation among 255 individuals by using autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome polymorphisms reveals substantial congruity among this diverse array of genetic systems and offers broad support for an African origin of modern human populations.
...
...