Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex

@article{Bechara1994InsensitivityTF,
  title={Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex},
  author={Antoine Bechara and Antonio R. Damasio and Hanna Damasio and Steven W. Anderson},
  journal={Cognition},
  year={1994},
  volume={50},
  pages={7-15}
}
Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex.
TLDR
A physiological correlate for the defect of prefrontal damage is identified and its possible significance is discussed, compatible with the idea that these patients fail to activate biasing signals that would serve as value markers in the distinction between choices with good or bad future outcomes.
Orbitofrontal cortex and its contribution to decision-making.
  • J. Wallis
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2007
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It is suggested that OFC plays a key role in processing reward: It integrates multiple sources of information regarding the reward outcome to derive a value signal that can be held in working memory and used by lateral and medial prefrontal cortex to plan and organize behavior toward obtaining the outcome.
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How do people reason and decide? Patients with damage to the ventromedial frontal cortex help answer this question, since their lesion renders their choices in the real world irrational, i.e., not in
Differential effects of insular and ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions on risky decision-making
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VmPFC damage was associated with increased betting regardless of the odds of winning, consistent with a role of vmPFC in biasing healthy individuals towards conservative options under risk, and patients with insular cortex lesions failed to adjust their bets by the odds on the Cambridge Gamble Task, confirming the necessary role of thevmPFC and insular regions in decision-making under risk.
Impaired behavior on real-world tasks following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
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Support is found for the hypothesis that VMPC patients had more impaired performances on the strategy application tasks, especially on a Multiple Errands Test that required patients to execute a series of unstructured tasks in a real-world setting (shopping mall).
Characterization of the decision-making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions.
TLDR
Patients with VM lesions are insensitive to future consequences, positive or negative, and are primarily guided by immediate prospects, according to this study's designs of a variant of the original gambling task.
Electrophysiological correlates of reward prediction error recorded in the human prefrontal cortex.
TLDR
A robust alpha-band component of event-related potentials is found that reflected the mismatch between expected outcomes and actual outcomes in the task, correlating closely with the reward-related error obtained from a reinforcement learning model of the patient's choice behavior.
Phineas gauged: decision-making and the human prefrontal cortex
Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans.
TLDR
It is found that both VMF and DLF damage leads to impaired IGT performance, and the impairment of VMF subjects, but not of DLF Subjects, seems to be largely explained by an underlying reversal learning deficit.
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