Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug: A Factor in the Pest’s Sudden Resurgence?

  title={Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug: A Factor in the Pest’s Sudden Resurgence?},
  author={Alvaro Romero and Michael F. Potter and Daniel A Potter and Kenneth F. Haynes},
  booktitle={Journal of medical entomology},
Abstract Infestations of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), are increasing around the world at an alarming rate and have become a major public health concern. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence. Extremely high levels of resistance to two pyrethroid insecticides, deltamethrin and &lgr;-cyhalothrin, relative to a susceptible colony, were detected in populations collected from human dwellings in Kentucky and Ohio… 

Pyrethroid Resistance Associated With a Decreased DEET Repellency in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

This study evaluated the repellence effectivity of DEET against two bed bug colonies from Argentina (a susceptible one and a field-collected pyrethroid-resistant one), under two starving periods and found different repellent effects of DEETS had a lower effect on the insecticide-resistant colony.

The re‐emergence of the bed bug as a nuisance pest: implications of resistance to the pyrethroid insecticides

The literature on pyrethroid resistance in bed bug populations sourced from different locations is reviewed, highlighting the mechanisms thought to be involved and the problems faced by pest control professionals in dealing with a developing pandemic.

Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug

Results reported in this dissertation suggest that insecticide resistance management may be a useful tool for extending the efficacy of insecticides for control of C. lectularius.

Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

Different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) are discussed with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

Effect of Synergists on Deltamethrin Resistance in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

The synergism data collected strongly suggest that detoxification enzymes play a significant role in the metabolic mechanisms that mediate deltamethrin resistance in bed bugs and offers an interesting avenue for the management of insecticide-resistant field populations.

Insecticide resistance in Cimex lectularius (Hemptera: Cimicidae) in Australia.

Resistance was confirmed in the field-collected strain with the pyrethroids and carbamates, but not the organophosphates or neonicotinoids, and Regulatory authorities must consider the implications of resistance to multiple insecticide groups when registering new products utilizing either existing or new modes of action.

Susceptibility of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Collected in Poultry Production Facilities to Selected Insecticides

Bed bugs in each of the three populations exhibited high levels of DDT resistance, LC50 > 100,000 ppm, which confirms that resistance to this insecticide continues in bed bug populations.

Evaluation of the insecticide susceptibility profile in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

The commercial insecticides have a limited effect on bedbug populations, which may justify the unsatisfactory control observed in the shelters studied.

Bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): an evidence-based analysis of the current situation.

The current bed bug upsurge appears to have started almost synchronously in the late 1990’s in Europe, the United States, and in Australia, and a wide range of explanations have been proposed for the increase, including climate change, increased human movement, changes in insecticide use patterns, and reduced insecticide susceptibility of the bed bugs.

Susceptibility of insecticide‐resistant bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) to infection by fungal biopesticide

It is demonstrated that Aprehend™ is equally effective against insecticide‐susceptible and insecticides‐resistant bed bugs and could provide pest control operators with a promising new tool for control of bed bug and insecticide resistance management.



Insecticide-resistance in bed-bugs.

  • J. Busvine
  • Biology
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1958
The resistance spectrum of bed-bugs towards this group of compounds resembles those of Anopheles gambiae and Musca domestica, indicating similarity in the defence mechanism.

Insecticide Resistance and Cross-Resistance in the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae)

Multiresistance mechanisms in the ALHF house fly strain do not confer cross-resistance to spinosad, a novel insecticide derived from the bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa, and it is proposed thatspinosad be used as a potential insecticide against house fly pests, especially resistant flies.

Genetics of resistance of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to pyrethroids. I. Knock‐down resistance

Knock-down resistance in Musca domestica, which provides cross-resistance between DDT and pyrethroids, has been genetically separated from three different resistant populations and the cross-over rates between them indicated that these factors are probably identical.

The Resurgence of Bed Bugs in Australia: With Notes on Their Ecology and Control

The trade in second-hand furniture, changes in pest management practices, the lack of awareness of bed bugs among pest controllers and health professionals, and other phenomena may all have contributed to the spread and increase in bed bug numbers.

Maintenance of a Laboratory Colony of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Using an Artificial Feeding Technique

In vitro maintenance technique has been used successfully to rear Cimex lectularius by feeding for >2 yr all nymphal stages and adults through parafilm “M” sealing film on different types of blood, and the subsequent egg production of female bedbugs was remarkably high.

Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods

A meta-modelling and evaluation of resistance management tactics and the role of population genetics in resistance research and management are reviewed.

DDT-resistant mosquito strains with cross-resistance to pyrethroids

It is concluded that an unknown mechanism associated with DDT-resistance confers a low level cross-tolerance to pyrethroids; this can be substantially augmented by the development of a microsomal oxidase mechanism, as in the Guyana strain.

Bedbug bites: a review

Bedbugs are reddish-brown insects that require blood meals to survive and feed on humans as well as other warm-blooded mammals and birds, and may be vectors for endemic infectious diseases such as American trypanosomiasis.

Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

Bed bug infestations adversely affect health and quality of life, particularly among persons living in homeless shelters, according to the World Health Organization.