Insect peptide hormones: a selective review of their physiology and potential application for pest control.

@article{Gde2003InsectPH,
  title={Insect peptide hormones: a selective review of their physiology and potential application for pest control.},
  author={Gerd G{\"a}de and Graham John Goldsworthy},
  journal={Pest management science},
  year={2003},
  volume={59 10},
  pages={
          1063-75
        }
}
Our knowledge on primary structure, synthesis, release, receptor binding, structure-activity relationships, mode of action and degradation of, mainly, neuropeptides from insects has increased dramatically during the last 10 years or so. Here, five case studies are presented, which deal selectively with effects on: reproduction (trypsin modulating oostatic factor in mosquito); energy metabolism, locomotion and the immune system (adipokinetic hormones); water and ion balance, and feeding… 
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For helicokinin I, a diuretic neuropeptide from the economically important insect pest Heliothis virescens, detailed structure‐activity relationships have been established based on truncated structures, diverse amino acid scans and peptidomimetic analogues.
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30 analogues modified with various substituents on the benzene ring at the N-terminus of lead compound H17 showed an effect on JH biosynthesis by CA in vitro, and the structure-activity relationship studies suggest that different positions of substituent on the Benzene ring of the cinnamic acid can lead to different activities.
Synthetic Insecticides - is There an Alternative?
TLDR
Peptides, such as trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides (PBANs), pyrokinins (PKs), sulfakinins (SKs), and allostatins (ASTs), as well as their analogues, have been extensively studied to produce pseudopeptides and peptidomimetics used by modern agriculture in contrast to chemical insecticides.
Biological activity and identification of neuropeptides in the neurosecretory complexes of the cabbage pest insect, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae; Lepidoptera).
TLDR
Five neuropeptides were unequivocally identified and the presence of a further three were inferred solely by comparing mass spectra with known peptides, which indicated that the cabbage moths rely on a lipid-based metabolism which is aided by an adipokinetic hormone.
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