Insect defoliation enhances nitrate export from forest ecosystems

@article{Swank1981InsectDE,
  title={Insect defoliation enhances nitrate export from forest ecosystems},
  author={Wayne T. Swank and J. B. Waide and D. A. Crossley and R. L. Todd},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={1981},
  volume={51},
  pages={297-299}
}
Chronic defoliation by the fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometaria (Harris), accompanied substantial increases in the stream export of nitrate nitrogen (NO3−N) from three mixed hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians. These integrated results clearly demonstrate a measurable effect of insect consumers on ecosystem processes, and provide support for the regulatory importance of insects on a landscape scale. 
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