Insect Predator-prey Dynamics and the Biological Control of Aphids by Ladybirds

  title={Insect Predator-prey Dynamics and the Biological Control of Aphids by Ladybirds},
  author={Pavel Kindlmann and Antony F. G. Dixon},
Predators are generally considered to be less effective biological control agents than parasites (DeBach, 1964). The famous exception is the control of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, by the ladybird beetle Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant). This outstanding success resulted in the widespread and haphazard introduction of ladybird beetles. However, aphidophagous species of ladybird beetles have generally proved ineffective biological control agents. 
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