Inoculating against misinformation

  title={Inoculating against misinformation},
  author={Sander van der Linden and Edward W. Maibach and John Cook and Anthony Leiserowitz and Stephan Lewandowsky},
  pages={1141 - 1142}
The unprecedented spread of misinformation threatens citizens' ability to form evidence-based opinions on issues of societal importance, including public health, climate change, and national security. In his Editorial “Nip misinformation in the bud” (27 October, p. [427][1]), R. Weiss argues 
Countering science denial
New research shows that leaving denial unanswered can have negative consequences, and countering science deniers can reduce their influence, even among those most likely to hold anti-scientific beliefs.
Countering Misinformation and Fake News Through Inoculation and Prebunking
ABSTRACT There has been increasing concern with the growing infusion of misinformation, or “fake news”, into public discourse and politics in many western democracies. Our article first briefly
Misinformation Battle Revisited: Counter Strategies from Clinics to Artificial Intelligence
Analysis of quelling strategies from organisational and government perspectives shows that, despite a seemingly suitable setting for confronting misinformation, there is a major shortcoming in governance mode of current quell strategies.
Inoculation theory in the post‐truth era: Extant findings and new frontiers for contested science, misinformation, and conspiracy theories
Although there has been unprecedented attention to inoculation theory in recent years, the potential of this research has yet to be reached Inoculation theory explains how immunity to
Fake news and science denier attacks on vaccines. What can you do?
  • N. MacDonald
  • Medicine
    Canada communicable disease report = Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada
  • 2020
A brief overview of evidence-based strategies to address vaccine deniers in public, in clinical practice and in social situations is provided and a strategy to help differentiate between vaccine denier and simple vaccine refusers in a practice or clinic is provided.
The fake news game: actively inoculating against the risk of misinformation
Abstract The rapid spread of online misinformation poses an increasing risk to societies worldwide. To help counter this, we developed a ‘fake news game’ in which participants are actively tasked
Promoting immunization resiliency in the digital information age.
  • N. MacDonald, È. Dubé
  • Computer Science
    Canada communicable disease report = Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada
  • 2020
Evidence-based strategies can be used to shift the narrative in specific communities with low vaccination rates, work with community leaders to build tailored programs that foster trust and reflect local values.
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It is argued that an effective communication strategy is a two-way process that involves clear messages, delivered via appropriate platforms, tailored for diverse audiences, and shared by trusted people.
Communicating to the Public in the Era of Conspiracy Theory
During the last decade, social scientists have taken a strong interest in both the veracity of citizens beliefs and the quality of information on which those beliefs are based. In particular, social
Technique-based inoculation against real-world misinformation
It is found that playing a 15 min game confers psychological resistance against real-world misinformation that makes use of manipulation techniques against which people were inoculated, and that cross-protection is achieved but at a reduced effect size.


Misinformation and Its Correction
Recommendations may help practitioners—including journalists, health professionals, educators, and science communicators—design effective misinformation retractions, educational tools, and public-information campaigns.
Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change
The current research bridges the divide by exploring how people evaluate and process consensus cues in a polarized information environment and evidence is provided that it is possible to pre‐emptively protect public attitudes about climate change against real‐world misinformation.
Neutralizing misinformation through inoculation: Exposing misleading argumentation techniques reduces their influence
It was found that inoculating messages that explain the flawed argumentation technique used in the misinformation or that highlight the scientific consensus on climate change were effective in neutralizing those adverse effects of misinformation.
Counteracting the Politicization of Science
Few trends in science have generated as much discussion as its politicization. This occurs when an actor emphasizes the inherent uncertainty of science to cast doubt on the existence of scientific
Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth.
Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better, andMultinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them, demonstrating knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences.
Inoculation and Narrative Strategies in Competitive Framing of Three Health Policy Issues
This article combines insights from competitive framing and persuasion research by comparing the impact of inoculation and narrative messages on support for policies designed to reduce obesity,
Fact-checking Effect on Viral Hoaxes: A Model of Misinformation Spread in Social Networks
The approach allows to quantitatively gauge the minimal reaction necessary to eradicate a hoax and is characterized by four parameters: spreading rate, gullibility, probability to verify a hoax, and that to forget one's current belief.
Effects of Postinoculation Talk on Resistance to Influence
Contemporary inoculation scholarship has focused on the process of resistance to persuasion, and recently begun to examine various incidental effects that may accompany inoculation treatments. This
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Experimental measurement of binding energy, selectivity, and allostery using fluctuation theorems
A fluctuation theorem for ligand binding is introduced and an experimental approach using single-molecule force spectroscopy to determine binding energies, selectivity, and allostery of nucleic acids and peptides in a model-independent fashion is introduced.