Innervation and function of rat tail muscles for modeling cauda equina injury and repair

  title={Innervation and function of rat tail muscles for modeling cauda equina injury and repair},
  author={Samuel J. Mackenzie and Juneyoung L. Yi and Amit Singla and Thomas M. Russell and Blair Calancie},
  journal={Muscle \& Nerve},
Introduction: The rat tail exhibits functional impairment after cauda equina injury. Our goal was to better understand the innervation and roles of muscles that control the tail. Methods: Adult rats received either: (1) ventral root injury; (2) caudales nerve injury; or (3) mapping of sacrococcygeal myotomes. Activation of small muscles within the tail itself (intrinsics) was compared with that of larger lumbosacral muscles acting on the tail (extrinsics). Behavioral testing of tail movement… 

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The findings demonstrate the feasibility of using CLSCs in cauda equina injury repair and demonstrate the relative contributions of cauda Equina motor neurons to intrinsic and extrinsic rat tail muscles.

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It is concluded that immobilization induced anxiety-like behavior that was moderately attenuated by eletroacupuncture with difference between the stimulation in PC6 or the rat tail.

İnsan Kuyruğu ve Kuyruklu İnsanlar: Kuyruk Nedir, Ne İşe Yarar? Kuyruklarımızı Neden Kaybettik ve Neden Hala Kuyruklu Doğan İnsanlar Var?

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The vertebrate tail: a gene playground for evolution

  • M. Mallo
  • Biology
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
  • 2019
It is argued that the distinct molecular networks controlling tail bud development provided a collection of readily accessible gene networks that were co-opted and combined during evolution either to end the active life of those progenitors or to make them generate the wide diversity of tail shapes and sizes observed among vertebrates.

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A delayed, but prolonged suppression of spontaneous Sm activity along with changes in noxious-evoked inhibitory responses in the contralateral hindpaw following lumbar vertebra thrust suggest that thalamic submedius neurons may play a role in central pain modulation related to manual therapy intervention.



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Regenerative implications aside, if electrophysiological mapping of injured nerve roots is to be carried out for repair purposes, the rapid nature of conduction failure needs to be considered.

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It is concluded that the intrapelvic skeletal muscles in the rat are similar to those described in the previous studies of humans and that they have a distinct innervation with no contribution from the pudendal nerve.

Spastic tail muscles recover from myofiber atrophy and myosin heavy chain transformations in chronic spinal rats.

The results indicate that early after transection or after long-term spinal isolation, relatively inactive tail myofibers atrophy and transform toward faster myofiber types, however, long- term spasticity apparently produces neuromuscular activity that promotes recovery of myOfiber types and my ofiber sizes.

Factors affecting neurological outcome in traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina injuries.

Posterior decompression and stabilization offers at least equivalent neurological outcomes as nonoperative or anterior approaches and has the additional benefits of surgeon familiarity, shorter hospital stays, earlier rehabilitation, and ease of nursing care.

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The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed and movements of the vertebral column produced by direct unilateral or bilateral muscle stimulation were observed for a number of the muscles.

Afferent and efferent connections of the rat tail flick reflex (a model used to analyze pain control mechanisms)

Axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to trace the efferent and afferent connections of the TFR to study neural mechanisms of analgesia.

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The studies indicate that pattern generators are not restricted to limb-moving spinal segments and suggest that regional specializations of pattern-generating circuitry and their associated interneurons are responsible for the different motor patterns produced by the mammalian spinal cord.

The Three Column Spine and Its Significance in the Classification of Acute Thoracolumbar Spinal Injuries

The author introduces the concept of middle column or middle osteoligamentouscomplex between the traditionally recognized posterior ligamentous complex and the anterior longitudinal ligament, and the correlation between the three-column system, the classification, the stability, the therapeutic indications are presented.