Innate immunity and its evasion and suppression by hymenopteran endoparasitoids

  title={Innate immunity and its evasion and suppression by hymenopteran endoparasitoids},
  author={Otto Schmidt and Ulrich Theopold and Michael R. Strand},
Recent studies suggest that insects use pattern recognition molecules to distinguish prokaryotic pathogens and fungi from “self” structures. Less understood is how the innate immune system of insects recognizes endoparasitic Hymenoptera and other eukaryotic invaders as foreign. Here we discuss candidate recognition factors and the strategies used by parasitoids to overcome host defense responses. We suggest that host–parasitoid systems are important experimental models for studying how the… 

Insect Defense System and Immunosuppression Strategies of Entomopathogenic Nematodes - An Overview

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