Innate immune recognition of viral infection

@article{Kawai2006InnateIR,
  title={Innate immune recognition of viral infection},
  author={Taro Kawai and Shizuo Akira},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  year={2006},
  volume={7},
  pages={131-137}
}
Induction of the antiviral innate immune response depends on recognition of viral components by host pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor family have emerged as key sensors that recognize viral components such as nucleic acids. Toll-like receptor signaling results in the production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines and leads to dendritic cell maturation and establishment of antiviral immunity. Cells also express cytoplasmic RNA helicases that function… 
Innate immune recognition of viral infection.
TLDR
Members of the Toll-like receptor family have emerged as key sensors that recognize viral components such as nucleic acids and induce type I interferon responses via distinct signaling pathways.
Antiviral signaling through pattern recognition receptors.
TLDR
The role of TLRs and RLHs in the antiviral innate immune response is reviewed, located in endosomal compartments, whereas RLH are present in the cytoplasm where they detect viral dsRNA or ssRNA.
Toll-Like Receptors and Viruses: Induction of Innate Antiviral Immune Responses
TLDR
This review will focus on the current knowledge of TLR-mediated immune responses to several viral infections and recently, TLR agonists represent a promising approach for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response.
TLDR
The present review will discuss the recent progress in the study of pathogen recognition by TLRs, RLRs and NLRs and their signalling pathways.
Pattern Recognition Receptors and Inflammation
Toll-like receptor 2 on inflammatory monocytes induces type I interferon in response to viral but not bacterial ligands
TLDR
It is reported that TLR2 activation by viruses led to the production of type I interferon, and it is demonstrated that this specialized response was mediated by Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes.
Toll-like receptors and innate immunity
TLDR
This review focuses on the functions of PRRs in innate immunity and their downstream signaling cascades and identifies cytoplasmic PRRs to detect pathogens that have invaded cytosols.
Nucleic acid recognition by the innate immune system.
TLDR
The current understanding of nucleic acid sensing by innate immune receptors is highlighted and the regulatory mechanisms that normally prevent inappropriate responses to self are discussed.
Activation of innate immune antiviral response by NOD2
TLDR
The function of Nod2 as a viral PRR highlights the important function ofNod2 in host antiviral defense mechanisms.
Viral regulation and evasion of the host response.
  • Y. Loo, M. Gale
  • Biology
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 2007
TLDR
This work provides a review of the virus/host processes involved in IFN signaling and regulation of innate immune defenses and demonstrates that many viruses, including hepatitis C virus, direct processes to control the host response to infection.
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