Innate antipredator responses of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) depend on predator species and their diet

  title={Innate antipredator responses of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) depend on predator species and their diet},
  author={Sampsa Vilhunen and Heikki Hirvonen},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
The ability to discriminate between more dangerous and less dangerous predators can have serious fitness advantages for fish juveniles. This is especially true for hatchery-reared fish young used for stocking, because their post-release mortality is often much higher than that of wild-born conspecifics. We tested whether two coexisting fish predators and their different diets induce innate behavioral responses in predator-naive Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) young originating from an… 

Is boldness towards predators related to growth rate in naïve captive-reared Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)?

This work tested the hypothesis that hatchery fish supposedly selected for faster growth in the hatchery environment are bolder towards predators than their slower-growing conspecifics, and found no differences in four behavioral antipredator traits between size-matched groups of fast- and slow-growing char.

Antipredator behaviour of naïve Arctic charr young in the presence of predator odours and conspecific alarm cues

Arctic charr young seem to have sophisticated skills to distinguish between different odour combinations and be able to adjust their behaviour according to the current predation risk level.

Prey naivety in the behavioural responses of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to an invasive predator

The hypothesis that naivety may be an important factor determining the effect of non-native predators on prey populations is supported, given that survival of juvenile fish is facilitated by predator recognition.

Less is more: social learning of predator recognition requires a low demonstrator to observer ratio in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

It is concluded that using social transmission procedures in training fish for reintroduction programs may provide considerable ecological, economical and ethical advantages.

Antipredator behaviour of Baltic planktivores

Investigating the different behavioural responses of Baltic planktivores to predation risk found the better predator detection abilities of stickleback larvae compared with littoral mysids refl ect the more highly developed sensory systems of vertebrates.

Size‐dependent stress response in juvenile Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) under prolonged predator conditioning

It is suggested that chemical cues from charr‐fed predators induce a prolonged stress response in juvenile charr, as prolonged predation exposure seems to elevate stress levels in a size‐dependent manner, the larger, faster growing fish could possibly have intrinsically lower stress responses to predation threats than smaller, slower growing fish.

Predator‐Naïve Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Show Antipredator Behaviours to Scent from an Introduced Piscivorous Mammalian Predator Fed Conspecifics

It is concluded that native and naive brown trout show relevant antipredator behaviours to an introduced mammalian predator, presumably based on diet-released conspecific alarm cues and thereby estimate the predation risk.

Innate predator recognition and fright response in related populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss under different predation pressure

No significant differences were observed between the stream and lake populations in the change in behaviour between pre- and post-stimulus observation periods for any of the measured fright responses, indicating that the sequestered lake population has not lost the ability to detect or respond to conspecific alarm substances or Dolly Varden scent.

Repeated antipredator conditioning: a pathway to habituation or to better avoidance?

The economical and ethical advantages of training with chemical cues, combined with its high reliability, could promote the success of fish reintroductions especially through repeated antipredator conditioning.

Adaptive behaviour of chironomid larvae (Chironomus riparius) in response to chemical stimuli from predators and resource density

Chironomid larvae were significantly able to adjust their foraging behaviour to different predator densities and food concentrations and trade off between them; that is, when fish predators were more abundant or when more food resources were available, the foraging activities of larvae were significant reduced.



Behavioural responses of naive Arctic charr young to chemical cues from salmonid and non‐salmonid fish

Although the Arctic charr young were completely naive regarding piscivores, the fact that they could distinguish between different predator taxa and diets on the basis of chemical cues only reflects the long coevolutionary history of these fish populations.

Chemical alarm signals and complex hatchery rearing habitats affect antipredator behavior and survival of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) juveniles

Chinook salmon receiving conspecific stimuli showed higher levels of several antipredator behaviors compared with chinook Salmon receiving green swordtail extracts, and the two groups of chinook salmon that were tested 2 days later with cutthroat trout stimulus alone spent more time motionless.

Predator recognition and anti-predator responses in the rainbowfish Melanotaenia eachamensis

Comparisons of Predator evasion behaviour patterns of three populations of rainbowfish suggest that the level of habitat complexity as well as prior predator experience influence anti-predator responses of different fish populations.

Acquired predator recognition in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): conditioning hatchery-reared fish to recognize chemical cues of a predator

These data are the first to demonstrate that hatchery-reared trout can be conditioned to recognize the chemical cues of a predator and suggest that this may serve as a strategy to train hatchery -reared fish to recognize predators prior to stocking into natural waterways.

Behavioural responses to predators and predation risk in four species of larval anurans

  • S. Lawler
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Animal Behaviour
  • 1989

Domestication and growth hormone alter antipredator behaviour and growth patterns in juvenile brown trout, Salmo trutta

This study suggests that antipredator behaviour, growth rate, and resource allocation patterns in brown trout change rapidly as a consequence of hatchery selection and that similar changes in antipredators behaviour can be induced by increasing GH levels.

Chemically mediated avoidance behavior in wild brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis: the response to familiar and unfamiliar predaceous fishes and the influence of fish diet

The results suggest that brook trout do not avoid odors of all predaceous fishes and are capable of altering their behavior patterns in response to a change in the diet of a predatory fish.

Population differences in predator recognition and attack cone avoidance in the guppy Poecilia reticulata

Piscivory by brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) in Norwegian lakes

Size and frequency of occurrence of prey of brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) were recorded in 13 Norwegian lakes during 1973–1990. Piscivores usually comprised