Innate and universal facial expressions: evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research.

@article{Izard1994InnateAU,
  title={Innate and universal facial expressions: evidence from developmental and cross-cultural research.},
  author={Carroll E. Izard},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={1994},
  volume={115 2},
  pages={288-99}
}
The idea of innate and universal facial expressions that have links with human emotions was given the status of scientific hypothesis by Darwin (1872/1965). Substantial evidence, old and new, supports his hypothesis. Much of the evidence is independent of language, but Russell's (1994) criticisms of the hypothesis focus on language-dependent data. In this… CONTINUE READING