Innate and induced resistance mechanisms of bacterial biofilms.

  title={Innate and induced resistance mechanisms of bacterial biofilms.},
  author={Gregory G. Anderson and George A O'Toole},
  journal={Current topics in microbiology and immunology},
Bacterial biofilms are highly recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which holds serious consequences for therapy of infections that involve biofilms. The genetic mechanisms of this biofilm antibiotic resistance appear to fall into two general classes: innate resistance factors and induced resistance factors. Innate mechanisms are activated as part of the biofilm developmental pathway, the factors being integral parts of biofilm structure and physiology. Innate pathways include decreased… CONTINUE READING