Injection-Induced Earthquakes

  title={Injection-Induced Earthquakes},
  author={William L. Ellsworth},
Background Human-induced earthquakes have become an important topic of political and scientific discussion, owing to the concern that these events may be responsible for widespread damage and an overall increase in seismicity. It has long been known that impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations are capable of inducing earthquakes. In particular, earthquakes caused by injection… 
Coping with earthquakes induced by fluid injection
The United States is the focus here, but Canada, China, the UK, and others confront similar problems associated with oil and gas production, whereas quakes induced by geothermal activities affect Switzerland, Germany, andOthers.
Characterizing and Responding to Seismic Risk Associated with Earthquakes Potentially Triggered by Fluid Disposal and Hydraulic Fracturing
For nearly a century, earthquakes apparently triggered by fluid injection have been observed in many parts of the world (National Research Council [NRC], 2012). Although injection‐related seismicity
Myths and Facts on Wastewater Injection, Hydraulic Fracturing, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and Induced Seismicity
The central United States has undergone a dramatic increase in seismicity over the past 6 years (Fig. 1), rising from an average of 24 M≥3 earthquakes per year in the years 1973–2008 to an average of
Induced Seismicity
The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has
Natural earthquakes as proxies for induced seismic hazard and risk: comparing peak and cyclic inelastic response
Over the last decade, human-induced earthquakes have become more common in the world due to the increased number of operations involving hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of tight hydrocarbon
The typical minimum earthquake magnitude (Mmin) used in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is generally accepted to be about moment magnitude (M) 5.0 based on the lack of observed damage to
Earthquakes and depleted gas reservoirs: which comes first?
Abstract. While scientists are paying increasing attention to the seismicity potentially induced by hydrocarbon exploitation, so far, little is known about the reverse problem, i.e. the impact of
Scientific Exploration of Induced SeisMicity and Stress (SEISMS)
Abstract. Several major fault-drilling projects have captured the interseismic and postseismic periods of earthquakes. However, near-field observations of faults immediately before and during an


Enhanced Remote Earthquake Triggering at Fluid-Injection Sites in the Midwestern United States
It is demonstrated that in the midwestern United States, some areas with increased human-induced seismicity are also more prone to further earthquakes triggered by the seismic waves from large, remote earthquakes.
Human-induced shaking
It does not take much to trigger an earthquake — even strong rainfall can do the job1. A variety of human activities can trigger earthquakes as well2,3. Numerous examples of seismicity triggered by
Preese Hall shale gas fracturing review and recommendations for induced seismic mitigation
A series of studies were commissioned by Cuadrilla Resources Ltd to examine the possible relationship between hydraulic fracture operations at the Preese Hall well, near Blackpool, and a number of
Potentially induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, USA: Links between wastewater injection and the 2011 Mw 5.7 earthquake sequence
Significant earthquakes are increasingly occurring within the continental interior of the United States, including five of moment magnitude (Mw) ≥ 5.0 in 2011 alone. Concurrently, the volume of fluid
Induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into a deep well in Youngstown, Ohio
Over 109 small earthquakes (Mw 0.4–3.9) were detected during January 2011 to February 2012 in the Youngstown, Ohio area, where there were no known earthquakes in the past. These shocks were close to
The San Salvador earthquake of 10 October 1986 and its historical context
The San Salvador earthquake of 10 October 1986 resulted in 1500 deaths, 10,000 injuries, and 100,000 people left homeless. The earthquake has a surface-wave magnitude ( MS ) of 5.4, and using
Earthquakes Induced By the Stimulation of an Enhanced Geothermal System Below Basel (Switzerland)
To stimulate the reservoir for a “hot dry rock” geothermal project initiated by a private/public consortium in the city of Basel, Switzerland, approximately 11,500 m3 of water were injected at high