Injecting human growth hormone as a performance-enhancing drug—perspectives from the United Kingdom

  title={Injecting human growth hormone as a performance-enhancing drug—perspectives from the United Kingdom},
  author={Michael Evans-Brown and Jim McVeigh},
  journal={Journal of Substance Use},
  pages={267 - 288}
Injectable human growth hormone has been used as a performance-enhancing drug in the United Kingdom since at least the mid-1980s. However, because of its prohibitive cost and limited supply it was initially restricted to a relatively small number of people. More recently data suggest that there has been a large increase in the use of the hormone within some sections of the general population. Here the hormone is usually taken as part of a high-dose polydrug regimen (which includes multiple… 
Online marketing of synthetic peptide hormones: poor manufacturing, user safety, and challenges to public health.
Notable amongst novel drugs on the illicit market are the synthetic peptide hormones GHRP-6, taken to stimulate the secretion of natural growth hormone, as well as melanotan II, a synthetic analogue of the endogenous α-melanocyte stimulating hormone which is predominantly used to achieve a skin tan.
Public health impact and implications of the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and associated drugs amongst the male general population
This research has made a significant contribution to the recognition and understanding of the harms associated with the administration of these drugs through injection and the impact of adulterated products as a result of the illicit market.
Anabolic steroids in the UK: an increasing issue for public health
Key changes in the authors' knowledge during the 20 years, in particular, in relation to HIV prevalence, changes in the market and patterns of use make anabolic steroid use a public health concern.
Treatments for people who use anabolic androgenic steroids: a scoping review
There is scarce evidence on treating dependence, managing withdrawal, or initiating behaviour change in users in any settings, and evidence is urgently required to support the development of effective services for users and of evidence-based guidance and interventions to respond to users in a range of healthcare settings.
Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Jordan : Mini Review
Until recently, there has been a complete lack of prevalence data regarding anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse locally in Jordan and the Arab world at large, but most Jordanians are not aware of the adverse side effects of AAS abuse.
Generating evidence on the use of Image and performance enhancing drugs in the UK: results from a scoping review and expert consultation by the Anabolic Steroid UK network
A scoping review has been conducted to examine the recent relevant literature to help inform the development and evaluation of effective interventions to reduce the harmful use of IPEDs and illustrates the rich data that has been gathered through diverse methodologies that will assist in the development of future effectiveness evaluations.
Prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV, hepatitis B and C infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs: a cross-sectional study
HIV prevalence in this, the largest study of blood-borne viruses among IPED injectors, was similar to that among injectors of psychoactive drugs, indicating a need for targeted interventions.
Human enhancement drugs and the pursuit of perfection.
This editorial aims to raise awareness of this emerging drugs situation and provide a brief overview of some of the drugs and their associated risks.
Risk of HIV and Hepatitis B and C Over Time Among Men Who Inject Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs in England and Wales: Results From Cross-Sectional Prevalence Surveys, 1992–2013
Blood-borne virus prevalences among IPED injectors have increased and for HIV, is now similar to that among psychoactive drug injectors, and targeted interventions to reduce risks are indicated.
Heuristics of human enhancement risk: a little chemical help?
A risk heuristics and public health discourse approach is presented to understanding and addressing this concerning form of aesthetic enhancement grounded in the emphasis on appearance as the indicator of being healthy and attractive.


Metabolic Studies on the Effects of Crystalline Growth Hormone (Somatotropin) in Man
In contrast with the rich literature on the effects of growth hormone (Somatotropin) in animals, evidence of its action in man is scant and inconclusive. This stems in large measure from the
Growth hormone, IGF‐I and insulin and their abuse in sport
Two approaches have been developed to detect GH abuse, based on an assessment of the effect of exogenous recombinant human GH on pituitary GH isoforms and the measurement of markers of GH action, which can be detected with reasonable sensitivity and specificity.
New developments in the illegal provision of growth hormone for "anti-aging" and bodybuilding.
Clinical evidence does support the therapeutic administration of hGH for children and adults with appropriate clinical indications, but extrapolating from this evidence to conclude that hGH improves health or longevity in normally aging individuals is not justified.
Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs.
Analysis of samples obtained from the underground market revealed the presence of skin commensal organisms, which may have contributed to the development of abscesses and the extent of available counterfeit products was established.
Demand for hGH may soon outstrip supply, research conducted on behalf of the Working Party suggests that hCH deficiency is more common than has been thought and that the prevalence may be as high as one in 10000.
Pathophysiology of the neuroregulation of growth hormone secretion in experimental animals and the human.
The pathophysiology of the GHRH somatostatin-GH-IGF-I feedback axis is reviewed and it is proposed that this system is best viewed as a multivalent feedback network that is exquisitely sensitive to an array of neuroregulators and environmental stressors and genetic restraints.
The effect of pituitary growth hormone in dwarfism with osseous retardation and hypoglycemia and in a cretin treated with thyroid.
A dwarf with osseous retardation and hypoglycemia was selected for these studies because it was surmised that such an individual might be more sensitive to the hormone, and showed an increased excretion of nitrogen, slight elevation of temperature and symptoms of malaise.
Growth hormone 1985.
1985 has been an eventful year for those concerned with growth hormone therapy, and Britain is the first country in the world to license a biosynthetic preparation of growth hormone, but this step forward has produced potential problems as well as benefits.
Gamma hydroxy butyrate abuse and dependency
GHB has been increasingly used in rape cases due to its capacity to produce intoxication and amnesia, and the management of patients dependent on GHB is rather complicated due to the high doses of medication that they require to control withdrawal symptoms.
Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old.
  • Xel, F. G., Attson
  • Medicine, Biology
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1990
Diminished secretion of growth hormone is responsible in part for the decrease of lean body mass, the expansion of adipose-tissue mass, and the thinning of the skin that occur in old age.