Injectable hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials, and they have been widely used for controlled drug release. This study evaluated an injectable hydrogel formed in situ system by the reaction of a polyethylene glycol derivative with α,β-polyaspartylhydrazide for local cancer chemotherapy. This pH-responsive hydrogel was used to realize a sol-gel phase transition, where the gel remained a free-flowing fluid before injection but spontaneously changed into a semisolid hydrogel just after administration. As indicated by scanning electron microscopy images, the hydrogel exhibited a porous three-dimensional microstructure. The prepared hydrogel was biocompatible and biodegradable and could be utilized as a pH-responsive vector for drug delivery. The therapeutic effect of the hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) after intratumoral administration in mice with human fibrosarcoma was evaluated. The inhibition of tumor growth was more obvious in the group treated by the DOX-loaded hydrogel, compared to that treated with the free DOX solution. Hence, this hydrogel with good syringeability and high biodegradability, which focuses on local chemotherapy, may enhance the therapeutic effect on human fibrosarcoma.