Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

@article{Lander2001InitialSA,
  title={Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.},
  author={Eric S. Lander and Lauren Linton and Bruce W. Birren and Chad Nusbaum and Michael C. Zody and Jennifer Baldwin and Keri Devon and Ken Dewar and Michael Doyle and William W. Fitzhugh and Roel Funke and Diane Gage and Katrina L. Harris and Andrew C. Heaford and John Howland and Lisa Kann and Jessica A. Lehoczky and Rosie Levine and Paul A. McEwan and Kevin J. McKernan and Jim Meldrim and Jill P. Mesirov and Cher Miranda and W Morris and Jerome W. Naylor and Christina Raymond and M. Rosetti and R Santos and Andrew Sheridan and Carrie Sougnez and Y Stange-Thomann and Nikola Stojanovic and Aravind Subramanian and Dudley W. Wyman and Jane Rogers and John Sulston and R. Ainscough and Stephan Beck and D. R. Bentley and John Burton and Chris Clee and Nigel P. Carter and A. R. Coulson and Rebecca Deadman and Panos Deloukas and Andrew Dunham and Ian Dunham and Richard Durbin and Lisa French and Darren V. Grafham and Simon G. Gregory and Tim J. P. Hubbard and Sean J. Humphray and Adrienne R. Hunt and M. C. Jones and Christine Lloyd and Amanda McMurray and L. H. Matthews and Simon Mercer and Sarah Milne and James C. Mullikin and Andrew J. Mungall and Robert W. Plumb and Mark T. Ross and Ratna Shownkeen and Sarah Sims and Robert H. Waterston and R. K. Wilson and LaDeana W. Hillier and John D. McPherson and Marco A. Marra and Elaine R. Mardis and Lucinda A. Fulton and Asif T. Chinwalla and Kymberlie Pepin and Warren Gish and Stephanie L. Chissoe and Michael C. Wendl and Kimberly D. Delehaunty and Tracie L. Miner and Andrew Delehaunty and J. Kramer and Lisa L. Cook and Robert S. Fulton and Donna L. Johnson and Patrick Minx and Sandra W. Clifton and Trevor L. Hawkins and Elbert Branscomb and Paul F. Predki and Paul G. Richardson and Sarah Wenning and Tom Slezak and Norman A. Doggett and J. F. Cheng and Anne S. Olsen and Susan M. Lucas and Christopher J. Elkin and Edward C. Uberbacher and Marvin Frazier and Richard A. Gibbs and Donna M. Muzny and Steven E. Scherer and John Bouck and Erica Sodergren and Kim C. Worley and C M Rives and James H. Gorrell and M. L. Metzker and S. L. Naylor and Raju Kucherlapati and David L Nelson and George M. Weinstock and Yoshiyuki Sakaki and Asao Fujiyama and Masahira Hattori and Tetsushi Yada and Atsushi Toyoda and Takehiko Itoh and Chiharu Kawagoe and H Watanabe and Yasushi Totoki and Todd D. Taylor and Jean Weissenbach and Roland Heilig and W. Saurin and François Artiguenave and Philippe Brottier and Thomas Bruls and {\'E}ric Pelletier and Catherine Robert and Patrick Wincker and D. R. Smith and Lynn A. Doucette-Stamm and Marc J. Rubenfield and Keith G. Weinstock and H. M. Lee and Jean‐Yves F. Dubois and Andr{\'e} Rosenthal and Matthias Platzer and Gerald Nyakatura and Stefan Taudien and Andreas Rump and H. Yang and J Yu and J. Wang and G Huang and J R Gu and Leroy E. Hood and Lee Rowen and Anup Madan and Shizen Qin and R W Davis and Nancy A. Federspiel and A. Pia Abola and Michael J. Proctor and R M Myers and Jeremy Schmutz and Mark C Dickson and Jane Grimwood and David R. Cox and Maynard V. Olson and Rajinder Kaul and Nobuyoshi Shimizu and Kazuhiko Kawasaki and Shinsei Minoshima and Glen A. Evans and Maria Athanasiou and R Schultz and B. A. Roe and F. Chen and H Q Pan and Juliane Ramser and Hans Lehrach and Richard Reinhardt and W. Richard McCombie and Melissa de la Bastide and Neilay Dedhia and Helmut Bl{\"o}cker and Klaus Hornischer and Gabriele Nordsiek and Richa Agarwala and L. Aravind and Jeffrey A. Bailey and Alex Bateman and Serafim Batzoglou and Ewan Birney and Petrus Van Bork and D Brown and Christopher B. Burge and Lorenzo Cerutti and H Chen and Deanna M. Church and Michele E. Clamp and Richard R. Copley and Tobias Doerks and Sean R. Eddy and Evan E. Eichler and Terrence S. Furey and James E. Galagan and James G. R. Gilbert and Cyrus L. Harmon and Yoshihide Hayashizaki and David Haussler and Henning Hermjakob and Karsten Hokamp and Wonhee Jang and L. Steven Johnson and Thomas A. Jones and Simon Kasif and Arek Kaspryzk and Scot Kennedy and W. James Kent and Paul A. Kitts and Eugene V. Koonin and Ian F. Korf and David Kulp and Doron Lancet and Gustavo Glusman and Todd M. Lowe and Aoife McLysaght and Tarjei Sigurd Mikkelsen and John V. Moran and Nicola J. Mulder and Victor J. Pollara and Chris Paul Ponting and Gregory D. Schuler and J{\"o}rg Schultz and Guy St. C. Slater and Arian F. A. Smit and Elia Stupka and Joseph Szustakowki and Danielle Thierry-Mieg and Jean Thierry-Mieg and Lukas Wagner and Justene Wallis and Raymond Wheeler and A Williams and Y. I. Wolf and Kenneth H. Wolfe and S P Yang and Rufang Yeh and F. S. Collins and Mark Guyer and J Peterson and Adam L. Felsenfeld and Kris A Wetterstrand and Aristides Patrinos and Michael J. Morgan and Pieter J de Jong and Joseph J. Catanese and Kazutoyo Osoegawa and Hiroaki Shizuya and S Choi and Y. J. Chen and Vacslav Glukhov},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2001},
  volume={409 6822},
  pages={
          860-921
        }
}
The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence. 

Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome

The sequence of the human genome has dramatically accelerated biomedical research. Here I explore its impact, in the decade since its publication, on our understanding of the biological functions

Evolutionary analyses of the human genome

TLDR
Computational analyses of the human genome will reveal the number of genes and repetitive elements, the extent of gene duplication and compositional heterogeneity in thehuman genome, andThe extent of domain shuffling and domain sharing among proteins.

More on the sequencing of the human genome

TLDR
The international Human Genome Project (HGP) and Celera Genomics published articles last year on the sequence of the human genome and aspects of the Celera article were analyzed.

Quality assessment of the human genome sequence

TLDR
The results of the largest examination of the quality of the finished DNA sequence are presented, based on a rigorous combination of laboratory experiments and computational analysis.

Sequencing the Human Genome: Was It Worth It?

TLDR
Almost complete human genome information is available and progress in the sequencing of other model organisms is impressive, providing enormous possibility for identification of disease genes.

Perspectives on the human genome

The end of all human DNA maps?

TLDR
The international consortium to sequence the human genome is using a clone-by-clone approach to DNA sequencing, which means that large arrays of clones will become important sequenced exemplars of human genes, with substantial implications for future research.
...

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Evolutionary analyses of the human genome

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Computational analyses of the human genome will reveal the number of genes and repetitive elements, the extent of gene duplication and compositional heterogeneity in thehuman genome, andThe extent of domain shuffling and domain sharing among proteins.

A physical map of the human genome

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Comparative genetic assessment expands the utility of dense genetic maps of human, mouse, and rat genomes in gene discovery, in functional genomics, and in tracking the evolutionary forces that sculpted the genome organization of modern mammalian species.

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The scientific rationale for the proposal and the business plan of the company are described, which aims to sequence the human genome four years faster and at lower cost than the government-backed Human Genome Project.

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The human genome is searched for genes encoding new proteins that may be involved in three nuclear gene expression processes: transcription, pre-messenger RNA splicing and polyadenylation, revealing a substantial but selective increase in complexity compared with Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans.

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The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project is a new effort by the NIH to generate full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) resources. This project will provide publicly accessible resources to the full

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