Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome

@article{Mikkelsen2005InitialSO,
  title={Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome},
  author={Tarjei Sigurd Mikkelsen and LaDeana W. Hillier and Evan E. Eichler and Michael C. Zody and David B. Jaffe and Shiaw-Pyng Yang and Wolfgang Enard and Ines Hellmann and Kerstin Lindblad-Toh and Tasha K. Altheide and Nicoletta Archidiacono and Peer Bork and Jonathan Butler and Jean L. Chang and Ze Cheng and Asif T. Chinwalla and Pieter J. de Jong and Kimberley D. Delehaunty and Catrina C. Fronick and Lucinda L. Fulton and Yoav Gilad and Gustavo Glusman and Sante Gnerre and Tina Graves and Toshiyuki Hayakawa and Karen Elizabeth Hayden and Xiaoqiu Huang and Hongjiu Ji and W. James Kent and Mary-Claire King and Edward J. Kulbokasl and Ming K. Lee and Ge Liu and Carlos L{\'o}pez-Ot{\'i}n and Kateryna D. Makova and Orna Man and Elaine R. Mardis and Evan Mauceli and Tracie L. Miner and William E. Nash and Joanne O. Nelson and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo and Nick J. Patterson and Craig S. Pohl and Katherine S. Pollard and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Xose S. Puente and David Reich and Mariano Rocchi and Kate R. Rosenbloom and Maryellen Ruvolo and Daniel J. Richter and Stephen F. Schaffner and Arian F. A. Smit and Scott M. Smith and Mikita Suyama and James Taylor and David Torrents and Eray T{\"u}z{\"u}n and Ajit Varki and Gloria Velasco and Mario Ventura and John W. Wallis and Michael C. Wendl and Richard K. Wilson and Eric S. Lander and Robert H. Waterston},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={437},
  pages={69-87}
}
Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differences that have accumulated since the human and chimpanzee species diverged from our common ancestor, constituting approximately thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. We use this catalogue to explore the magnitude… 
The chimpanzee genome project
TLDR
A draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was published by the Chimpanzee Sequencing & Analysis Consortium (CSAC) in 2005 and has been used to assess the magnitude and regional variation of the mutational forces which have shaped the two genomes.
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TLDR
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Comparison of the human and chimpanzee genome has revealed a broad spectrum of genetic differences, but it is difficult to distinguish the neutral from the functionally meaningful changes that have occurred in both primate genomes since divergence from their common ancestor.
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TLDR
This analysis expands the number of potential rearrangements between chimpanzees and humans 50-fold and prioritizes regions for further finishing in the chimpanzee genome and provides a resource for interrogating functional differences between humans and chimpanzees.
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TLDR
The myriad submicroscopic rearrangements in both genomes, particularly those involving copy number variation, are unlikely to represent exclusively neutral changes and hence promise to facilitate the identification of genes that have been important for human-specific evolution.
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TLDR
This review summarized the available information about genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees and their potential functional impacts on differential molecular, anatomical, physiological and cognitive peculiarities of these species.
Understanding the recent evolution of the human genome: insights from human–chimpanzee genome comparisons
TLDR
Recent progress in comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes is reviewed and how the differences detected have improved the understanding of the evolution of the human genome is discussed.
Human-Specific Changes of Genome Structure Detected by Genomic Triangulation
TLDR
With genomic triangulation, an integrative method that reconstructs ancestral states and the structural evolution of genomes, 130 human-specific breakpoints in genome structure due to rearrangements at an intermediate scale are identified, including 64 insertions affecting 58 genes.
Nucleotide Sequence Divergence between Humans and Chimpanzees
TLDR
It is demonstrated that nonsubstitution variations greatly increase the complexity and play a critical role in human–chimpanzee genome evolution.
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