Acquired antithrombin (AT) deficiency has been associated with patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a result of hemodilution, blood coagulation activation, and the use of heparin. Replacement of AT has been typically utilized through the use of fresh-frozen plasma or AT concentrate. Antithrombin alfa (ATryn) is a recombinant form of AT (rAT) with an identical amino acid sequence as that of plasma-derived antithrombin. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship of rAT dose to measured plasma antithrombin activity in a small series of patients who received rAT while on ECMO. A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients at Medical City Children's Hospital who received ATryn while supported on ECMO between December 2011 and April 2012. Five patients were identified and the patients' weight, bolus dose of ATryn, drip rate of ATryn, and AT blood levels were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 1 month (range, 1 day to 3.75 years). Because no dosing guidelines exist for pediatric ECMO, a starting dose of ATryn was chosen based on the manufacturer's labeled indication (prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with AT hereditary deficiency). The median dose of rAT was 368 IU/kg/day (range, 104-520 IU/kg/day) to obtain AT activity level of 80-120%. The average time to reach the targeted AT activity level (80-120%) was 12.7 hours (range, 11-17 hours). Our findings suggest that the published ATryn dose may be inadequate to reach desired AT activity concentrations for pediatric patients on ECMO. Difference in patient population, use of extracorporeal circuits, and the use of heparin are likely explanations for this finding. We would also recommend frequent checking of AT levels while delivering this drug because making timely adjustments is necessary for achieving and maintaining the target AT activity level.