Activation of mutated TRPA1 ion channel by resveratrol in human prostate cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF).
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring stilbene with antitumor properties, caused mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)] activation, nuclear translocation of Ser15-phosphorylated p53, and p53-dependent apoptosis in hormone-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells. Exposure of these cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) for up to 4 hours resulted in brief activation of MAPK followed by inhibition of resveratrol-induced signal transduction, p53 phosphorylation, and apoptosis. Resveratrol stimulated c-fos and c-jun expression in DU145 cells, an effect also suppressed by EGF. An inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -beta, and -gamma (CGP41251) enhanced Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 by resveratrol in the absence of EGF and blocked EGF inhibition of the resveratrol effect. EGF caused PKC-alpha/beta phosphorylation in DU145 cells, an effect reversed by CGP41251. Activation of PKC by phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) enhanced EGF action on ERK1/2 phosphorylation without significantly altering p53 phosphorylation by resveratrol. DU145 cells transfected with a dominant-negative PKC-alpha construct showed resveratrol-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and Ser15 phosphorylation of p53 but were unresponsive to EGF. Thus, resveratrol and EGF activate MAPK by discrete mechanisms in DU145 cells. The stilbene promoted p53-dependent apoptosis, whereas EGF opposed induction of apoptosis by resveratrol via a PKC-alpha-mediated mechanism. Resveratrol also induced p53 phosphorylation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, an effect also inhibited by EGF. Inhibition of PKC activation in LNCaP cells, however, resulted in a reduction, rather than increase, in p53 activation and apoptosis, suggesting that resveratrol-induced apoptosis in these two cell lines occurs through different PKC-mediated and MAPK-dependent pathways.