Imperatorin Suppresses Degranulation and Eicosanoid Generation in Activated Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells
Here, we show that actin polymerisation inhibitors such as latrunculin B (LB), and to a minor extent also cytochalasin D (Cyt D), enhance the release of arachidonic acid (AA) as well as nuclear translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 5-LO product synthesis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), challenged with thapsigargin (TG) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The concentration-dependent effects of LB (EC50 approximately 200 nM) declined with prolonged preincubation (>3 min) prior TG and were barely detectable when PMNL were stimulated with Ca2+-ionophores. Investigation of the stimulatory mechanisms revealed that LB (or Cyt D) elicits Ca2+ mobilisation and potentiates stimulus-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+, regardless of the nature of the stimulus. LB caused rapid but only moderate activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2. The selective Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 blocked LB- or Cyt D-mediated Ca2+ mobilisation and suppressed the upregulatory effects on AA release and 5-LO product synthesis, without affecting AA metabolism evoked by ionophore alone. We conclude that in PMNL, inhibitors of actin polymerisation cause enhancement of intracellular Ca2+ levels through Src family kinase signaling, thereby facilitating stimulus-induced release of AA and 5-LO product formation.