Endothelial PKCδ activation attenuates neutrophil transendothelial migration
A video system was used to investigate the inhibitory effect(s) of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) extravasation in the microcirculation of hamster cheek pouch. DEX was given intraperitoneally at 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg body weight 2 h before induction of extravasation by topical application of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) on the microvasculature. The number, time course, and behavior of PMNs were examined in the following five steps of extravasation: (1) rolling on the venular endothelium, (2) adhesion on the endothelium, (3) passage between the endothelial cells, (4) staying in the venular wall, and (5) migration from the venular wall into the interstitial space. In either the presence or absence of DEX, topical application of LTB4 (15 pmol/50 microliters) or fMLP (10 nmol/50 microliters) caused an increase in the number of PMNs that adhered to the venules. Thus, DEX did not inhibit the adhesion of PMNs on the endothelial cells. The adhered PMNs induced by these chemoattractants became gradually smaller, finally disappearing in the vascular lumen, as observed on the monitor screen. The whole process took about 10 min. This passage of PMNs between the endothelial cells was also not inhibited by DEX, as over 90% of the adhered PMNs passed through the endothelial cells and advanced to the next step of extravasation in the presence or absence of DEX. When these chemoattractants were applied to DEX-untreated animals, the PMNs that passed through the endothelial cells stayed for about 30 min in the venular wall. Thereafter, PMNs migrated into the interstitial space. The numbers of PMNs in the interstitial space were counted at 30, 60, and 90 min after the application of chemoattractants. In the DEX-untreated animals, PMNs in the interstitial space started to appear by 30 min, and thereafter the number further increased. However, in the DEX-treated animals, the number of PMNs at 60 and 90 min was significantly suppressed. Since DEX may inhibit the synthesis and/or release of a proteinase(s) in the PMN granules, which would normally degrade the basement membrane, this inhibition may be due to the inability of PMNs to penetrate the basement membrane.