Inhibition of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in response to titanium particles in vitro.


BACKGROUND Wear debris contributes to implant loosening after total joint arthroplasty, and few advances have been made in our ability to inhibit the biological response to wear particles. Bacterial endotoxins augment the effects of wear particles in vitro and in vivo. The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is produced by macrophages in… (More)


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