Uncontrolled activation of microglia contributes to neuroinflammation, which is highly involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although cinnamon has neuro-protective properties, its capacity to inhibit neuroinflammation has not been investigated and its active compounds remain unclear. Therefore, the composition of cinnamon extract was analysed by LC-MS and the ability of cinnamon and its main constituents to inhibit neuroinflammation was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. In total, 50 μg/mL cinnamon extract decreased significantly the production and expression of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Blocking of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was the most likely mechanism responsible for inhibition by cinnamon of neuroinflammation. Among the eight tested compounds, cinnamaldehyde had the greatest anti-neuroinflammatory capacity. Experimental results suggest that cinnamon may have a potential therapeutic effect against neurodegenerative diseases and its potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity was primarily attributed to cinnamaldehyde.