Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the mediators involved in the brain-gut axis response to MS-induced damage. We investigated the roles of the CRH receptors, CRHR1 and CRHR2, in MS-induced intestinal injury and subsequent repair. To distinguish their specific roles in mucosal injury, we selectively blocked CRHR1 and CRHR2 with pharmacological antagonists. Our results show that in response to MS, CRHR1 mediates gut injury by promoting intestinal inflammation, increasing gut permeability, altering intestinal morphology, and modulating the intestinal microbiota. In contrast, CRHR2 activates intestinal stem cells and is important for gut repair. Thus, selectively blocking CRHR1 and promoting CRHR2 activity could prevent the development of intestinal injuries and enhance repair in the neonatal period when there is increased risk of intestinal injury such as necrotizing enterocolitis.