excitotoxicity in rat striatal neurons
- G Biswas, W Tang, N Sondheimer, M Guha, S Bansal, NG. Avadhani
- PLoS One 2013;
Aim:Cathepsin L, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, is exclusively elevated in a variety of malignancies, including gliomas. In this study we investigated the relationship between cathepsin L and NF-κB, two radiation-responsive elements, in regulating the sensitivity of human glioma cells ionizing radiation (IR) in vitro.Methods:Human glioma U251 cells were exposed to IR (10 Gy), and the expression of cathepsin L and NF-κB was measured using Western blotting. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 was analyzed with immunofluorescence assays. Cell apoptosis was examined with clonogenic assays. NF-κB transcription and NF-κB-dependent cyclin D1 and ATM transactivation were monitored using luciferase reporter and ChIP assays, respectively. DNA damage repair was investigated using the comet assay.Results:IR significantly increased expression of cathepsin L and NF-κB p65 and p50 in the cells. Furthermore, IR significantly increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and NF-κB-dependent cyclin D1 and ATM transactivation in the cells. Knockdown of p65 did not change the expression of cathepsin L in IR-treated cells. Pretreatment with Z-FY-CHO (a selective cathepsin L inhibitor), or knockdown of cathepsin L significantly attenuated IR-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and cyclin D1 and ATM transactivation, and sensitized the cells to IR. Pretreatment with Z-FY-CHO, or knockdown of p65 also decreased IR-induced DNA damage repair and clonogenic cell survival, and sensitized the cells to IR.Conclusion:Cathepsin L acts as an upstream regulator of NF-κB activation in human glioma cells and contributes to their sensitivity to IR in vitro. Inhibition of cathepsin L can sensitize the cells to IR.